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Sunday, July 15, 2012

Summer #2-Primary Analysis: Bernal Diaz del Castillo

A Conquistador Arrives in Mexico, 1519-1520
Bernal Diaz del Castillo -  The Conquest of New Spain, 1632


Bernal Diaz del Castillo, born in Spain in 1492, came to the new world at age 22, seeking fortune.  After several years, he joined Hernando Cortes' expedition to Mexico. Diaz participated in the major events of the Conquest.  Afterwards, when he read biased and inaccurate accounts of the Conquest, he decided to write his own eyewitness account.  It took thirty years to write, and was sent to the king of Spain in 1575.  However, it was not published until 1632 as The True History of the Conquest of Spain. In the chapters listed below, Diaz describes what he and other Spaniards first saw when they arrived in Mexico.


Please read the following excerpts from Castillo's manuscript:
Chapter 88
Chapter 89
Chapter 90
Chapter 91
Chapter 92


When students are finished reading, they should answer any or all of the following questions. 


Do not hesitate to ask your own questions, or even to question or comment on something one of your classmates may post.  The only things to remember are to avoid text-like phrasing, and to remain polite.


  1. How did Mexico compare to European society, according to Diaz?  What cultural aspects stood out to him as he first encountered this New World civilization?
  2. In what ways was Montezuma different from other Mexicans, according to Diaz? Did these appear as bizarre or conventional to Diaz?
  3. To what extent did Mexico differ from what Diaz expected to find? What might have shaped his expectations and, in turn, his sense of wonder?
  4. How reliable is the resource, based on who wrote it, and when it was written?  What biases are present?

Use the following enrichment resources when reading through Chapter 1, to help develop a more complete understanding of the topics.

European vs. Native American Technology
Columbian Exchange
Spanish Explorers
Cortes defeats the Aztecs

50 comments:

Joseph T said...

1-According to Diaz, Mexico had many riches and wonders, but lacked the spiritual value that he believed made Spain so great. Some of the cultural aspects that stood out to him we're how no one dared to look at Montezuma directly, they all kept their eyes properly lowered. He also noticed their emphasis on human sacrifice, and that they consumed the flesh of the sacrificed victims.

2-Montezuma, according to Diaz, was rather thin and slender. He had eyes that held love and compassion when it suited him. He was tall, and his hair was not overly long, save around his ears, where it completely covered them. This appeared as conventional, because he was the ruler and was supposed to be better and more different than his subjects.

3-Diaz expected Mexico to not be as rich as it was. He was amazed at the vast quantities of riches they possessed.His expectations may have been shaped by the accounts of the earlier explorers and the general appearance of the native americans they had viewed so far.

4-This resource is reliable. It was written by a soldier who was there at the time it happened. This soldier was also present at many of the important events that took place. However, this account was also written years after these events took place. It is possible that some of the facts were distorted by time. Also, as stated in the chapter, the author could not remember names of the animals or deities.

Gangsta Phil said...

Phil sarrazin Said...

1) Mexican society compared to european society was diffrent, according to diaz the mexican people didnt fallow christianity like most europeans did, mexico was also filled with riches of gold and precious stones, that werent found in europe, mexican customs were also difrent from those in europe. for example diaz said that no one looked at Montezuma in the eyes except for his family, everyone else raised there heads to him but had there eyes cast down.

2) according to Diaz, Montezuma was lighter in skin color than the other mexicans, he also had the heart of a 70 year old when he only lookd about 40 showing his good health, he was also tall in stature and was quite thin compared of that to other mexicans at this time in history.

3)in Diaz's mind what he thaught he would find when he came to mexico was compleatly difrent from what he actualy found. upon ariving in mexico Diaz found a better Developed civilization than what he expected to find. the mexican civilization in wich he found was rich with gold and had a monarchy much like those of europe.

4)This source material given is very reliable for the time it was writen because it was writen at the time these events took place and was writen buy someone who was there.

Cameron S said...

1- According to Diaz, Mexico compared to European society because it had a lot of wonders but did lack some spiritual value. The culture aspects that stood out to him, were how no one could look Montezuma in the eyes directly, they laid cotton cloths on the ground so he wouldn't touch the earth, and only his family would look at him.

2- According to Diaz, Montezuma was different from other Mexicans, because he was tall and slender, but also was very thin and had very little hair. Also, his eyes had the expression of love, at the proper moments. These appeared as conventional because Montezuma was the leader and should look different, in a good way, or stand out from his group.

3- Mexico differed from what Diaz expected, because he thought Mexico wasn't as wealthy as it was until his discovery. He was shocked but very amazed at the amount of riches they had though. His expectations might have been shaped by the previous explorations of others and the natural look of the Native Americans they have already researched.

4- This resource is very reliable, because it was written in first person, making it easier for the reader to put themselves into the story. Also, it describes, in detail, everywhere he went, everything he did and every person he met. Even though the story was written a very long time ago, it makes the readers believe everything is true because how detailed and accurate the story is.

Nathan Hom said...

1. Mexico according to Diaz had a developed society similar to that of Europe. They were also rich in resources and the country was ripe of opportunities and wonders. Mr. Diaz observed many cultural differences but the main one he often talks about is Christianity. That they lacked the "one true god" and he was lucky to be living and believed in Christianity unlike the New world civilization who believed in "fake idols" . Additionally there rituals such as human sacrifices interested him and treated their leader Montezuma like a God.
2. As I iterated before Montezuma was different from the other Mexican because as well as being their leader they treated him like God (not letting him touch the ground, not looking directly at his face, almost no one spoke to him without being spoke to first, etc). He described him to be in his forties, tall, slender, a black beard he thought made him handsome, " fine eyes had the expression of love or severity", being a clean person, and among other things to compliment him as looking the part as a strong, capable, and wise leader. Which would seem conventional as to seem distinguished from his people as a great leader.
3. Diaz might of expected everyone to be a little more primitive and more disorderly instead of being such an organized empire. Shaping his beliefs because Montezuma and his people did not have Christianity which amazed him of how they could be doing so well and with many riches. Perhaps setting his sense of wonder very low. Also before embarking on this trip many other explorers could have influenced him by their adventures which probably all varied to successful to nightmarish disasters.
4. The text is a first person account of what happened so what he knows is accurate of the time. This is his memoir so there is no reason or incentive to not tell the truth (perhaps he forgot some details of the trip but nothing that important should of been forgotten). However his work is not without bias, he notes how lost these people are without a one true god even giving the feeling he thinks there a little primitive and barbaric with their rituals such as human sacrifices. Although he writes how well they are doing and that the land is full of rich resources and wonders surprising him.

Stefanie Ellsworth said...

Stefanie Ellsworth said...
1. Diaz thought that Mexico had many wonders, no spirituality and Spain did well. One cultural aspect was that no one looked at Montezuma in the eye. He realized that human sacrifice was very important to the victims.

2. Diaz believed that Montezuma was very different because he was skinny and lean. He was tall with short hair which didn't cover his ears and he was also light skinned. This was conventional because Montezuma was a leader and was higher than everyone else.

3. Diaz thought that Mexico would be poorer than it turned out to be and he was very surprised that it was rich. He was shocked by all the amounts of riches the country had. It was shaped by the Native Americans who have lived there and were seen and also with other explorers that were there once.

4. This source is reliable. It was written by a soldier who was there. This was written years after the event. The biases were that the names of the gods or goddesses and wildlife weren't known.

Matt Cosciello said...

1- According to Diaz, Mexican society was greatly riched with gold and jewels. However, he did state that Mexico lacked some spiritual value. Diaz was surprised to find out that nobody ever looked at Montezuma directly in the eye and would look down instead. He was also interested to find out that the people treated Montezuma like a god and gave sacrifices.

2- Montezuma appeared to be very tall and thin, according to Diaz. He was also described to be a strong leader and had a slightly different skin color than the other Mexicans. This appeared convention to Diaz because he believed that the leader should "stand out" and look better and more powerful to everyone else.

3- Diaz had a very different experience in Mexico than he thought he would. He didn't believe that Mexico would as much of a developed civilization as it was and he was very amazed to discover that Mexico had many riches which was also unexpected. His expectations may have been shaped by the opinions of other explorers and what Diaz may have found on other explorations to places he thought would be similar to Mexico.

4- I think that this source is very reliable because at the beginning of the book it stated that this author was just a translator of the original Spanish version by the actual Bernal Diaz del Castillo. The release date of this translated version by John Ingram Lockhart is May of 2010, which is not very long ago but the date it was published shouldn't matter because it is just translated from an original journal written hundreds of years ago. Over time some information may have been lost or slightly changed but this book appears to be accurate.

Patrick said...

1. Diaz belived that Mexico had many riches and natural wonders and man made wonders but they were lacking something and that was the religous ways of the europeans. The way of life was the same and diffrent for the europeasn and the mexicans because they both had leaders that were in charge but they were diffrent because of the religous ways and life styles.

2. According to Diaz Montezuma was not like the other Mexicans because he had a diffrent mental and physical appearence to him. Montezuma's physical appearence was not like anny other mexican becasue he was much leaner than most of them he stood tall and powerful and he had very little hair on the top of his head. His mental attiude was much diffrent than the other people because he becasue he acted wise and full of knowledge like and older person but he had the lookes of a younger person.

3. Diaz's expations of mexico was not very good. He thought that mexico was going to be very similar to many of the other new civlizations that they have found on other expeditions. But when he found the civilations in mexico they were full of riches and had a powerful goverments in each civilazation.

4. I belive that this source is not reliable because it was written many years after these events had happen and many of the events that had been stated in the article could have been changed over time. The author could have gotten facts mixed up with ledgins and stories.

Brianna Gordon said...

1 To Diaz,Mexico and Europe were similar but yet different from one another. One of the main difference s was religion; In Europe the religion was all around christianity and in Mexico they did not really have a set religion. Mexico was like Europe in the way that they were rich In Resources and had tons of opportunity for expansion. Diaz also realized that like Europe Mexico had a monarchy setup in government;in both societies the highest ruler in the society made the final choices in customs &Religion. Bernal was probably astonished by the way the civilians treated Montezuma. Mexico had a high importance of human sacrifices and Europe was new to this concept ,so that was also shocking to him. The people had the flesh of the sacrificed people.

2 From what Diaz has described Montezuma was different from all the other people. Montezuma had light skin and not a lot of hair and was loyalty to civilians. He was different in the way that the Mexicans were expected to treat him. They were supposed to not look him directly in the eye, were expected to lay down cotton cloth onto the ground so his feet didn't touch the earth. Montezuma was unique in height this was great because he could be seen by large crowds described to us by Diaz himself in the Excerpt.

3 Diaz probably didn't expect the people to be so developed and aware of what they had. He was probably astonished by  how wealthy and rich Mexico was. Diaz probably also had to question how these people were doing so well with no set belief in a Religion. Berna Diaz Castillo was having low expectations do to what previous explorers opinions about Mexico. Diaz was also probably not expecting the way governing to be so similar to Europe's. 

4 I mark the source as a Reliable source. Doing a full evaluation of the piece I recognize that is a written at the time short after General Diaz's arrival into Mexico. Was written by the correct person that would have the right information about the event. It states exactly what was encountered. There were biases about the gods and goddesses. The excerpts from castillos manuscript are rather detailed and lead me to conclude that the source is reliable.  

Pallavi Kasturi said...

1. According to Diaz Mexico had a similar society to Europe. They had many resources and the country was a great place to be a part of. Diaz noticed that the culture there was different; the cultural aspects that stood out to him as he first encountered the New World civilization, is they lacked the sense of Christianity. As the previous blog comments stated, “Diaz said that no one looked at Montezuma in the eyes except for his family, everyone else lifted their heads to him but had their eyes down.” He was also interested to find out that the people treated Montezuma like a god and gave sacrifices.

2. Montezuma was different from the other Mexicans because even though he was their leader the Mexican people treated him as if he was God, they wouldn’t let him touch the ground and not look him directly in the face. Montezuma was different from other Mexicans, because he was tall and lean.

3. Mexico was different than what Diaz found because, he noticed there were many riches and it was not what Diaz expected to be there. His expectations might have been shaped by the previous explorations of others and the natural look of the Native Americans they have already researched. I feel Diaz did not expect that Mexico was so rich and had so many resources there.

4. The sources seem to be very reliable since time period it was taken in and the resources are written in first person which shows the person was there when all of the events were occurring. The writer is detailed in what is happening and going on. He shows the events taken place is a very thorough way and it doesn’t look made up and fake. The recourses seem very accurate. The biases that I found present in the source was about the Gods and Goddesses. This source seems very reliable and a good source to back up on information in the future.

gabby said...

1) According to Diaz, Mexico and Europe were very similar but with a few differences. The Mexican society did not follow religion as the Europeans did which he thought was unusual. Things that stood out to him about the Mexicans were their interesting practices since he noticed, no one could look Montezuma in the eyes directly, they laid cotton cloths on the ground so he wouldn't touch the earth, they believed in human sacrifice and the consumed the flesh of those sacrificed and only his family would look at him.

2) The way Diaz described Montezuma made him seem different from other Mexicans because he was a lighter skin color, thinner, taller, and had compassion and serenity in his eyes. This was conventional because it made him look different that the people that he was a leader to and made him more distinguishable.

3) Mexico differed from what Diaz expected because he didnt think they would he as wealthy and well developed as they were. His expectations might have been influenced by other explorers and the fact that they did not follow Christianity as he did so he did not think their home land could be as good as it was without that religion.

4) This information is reliable because it was written at the same time the events were happening and it is very detailed with what people he met what he was doing and what was happening around him. Biases present in the text were about the gods and godesses.

Jackson rioux said...

1- Mexican society compared to European society with various different similiarities as well as differences. For example, both societies had a religion as well as a leader. Within these similiarities differences between the two societies were also featured. Cultural aspects, such as human sacrifice and consumption stood out to Diaz, along with the fact that only the family of Montezuma was allowed to look him in the eye.

2- Montezuma was different from the other Mexicans with his lighter skin tone, his shorter hair, and generally his cleaner appearance. These were portrayed as conventional characteristics to Diaz because the leader of a group is supposed to look lavish and more well kept than the inhabitants,

3- Mexico differed a good amount from what Diaz was originally expecting. It was not a land of poverty but rather, a well established kingdom with extraordinary amounts of riches. Although some of the aspects of the culture seemed primitive, the city was well designed and surprisingly in order. Really the only thing that could've shaped his expectation would have been past stories he heard from the early ships that scouted the land or from past explorers which may have led him to have lower expectations for Mexico.

4- I would say that this resource is relatively reliable. It came from someone who witnessed these events firsthand however, it was written after these events and some parts of the story may have been altered to add for effect. A few biases are present regarding the way of life compared to European society, such as, the thoughts Diaz had on human sacrifice and how he basically laughed at the religion of the Native people when comparing it to Christianity.

Austin F said...

1.)According to Diaz the mexican society had a similar society of Europe.One similarity of the societies were that both Europe and the mexicans is that they were both rich in resources.The two societies each had a set religion, (although not the same religion) and stood strongly by there beilefs.Also each society had a ruler, whom everybody was united under his power. The similarities in the religion though also had major differences, Cortes said that they lacked " one true god" since Europe beilieved in one god while the mexicans beilieved in many.

2.) Based off of Diaz's description of Montezuma, Montezuma differed in many ways from the other Mexicans. Physically Montezuma differed from the other Mexicans because his skin tone was lighter, he had shorter hair. He also was taller and leaner than everybody else. Besides physical differences Montezuma also differed from the Mexicans in more ways. One way was taht he was of a higher authority, and none of the mexicans would look him directly in the eye. He could have been displaying a god-like feature towards the people causing them to act that way. The differences of Montezuma to the mexicans seemed conventional to Diaz because the leader of a group (Montezuma) is supposed to stand out from all the rest of his/her people.

3.) Mexico greatly differed from what Diaz expected to find. Mexico was a wealthy place, not a poor country, which Diaz had expected. The city was well put together, and the room that he stayed in suited him and the other men very well. A factor that could have shaped his expectation on mexico could have been from past trips and experiences with people around the region, or from stories he had heard from other exporers.All of which would have helped shape his expectations of the mexicans.

4.) I beilve that this resource is reliable to a certain extent. It could be concitered reliable because it was written by someone who was there and saw what acually happen first hand.A few pieces that could have been unreliable were the facts (numbers) such as the mount of dishes there were at dinner. But that wouldnt be something that would change the whole view on if it was beiliveable or not. Some biases that could be found thoughtout the piece were his thoughts on the religion the mexicans had, and the use of human sacrafice to please there gods.

Jen Fusco said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico compared to European society because both areas were rich in resources like gold and had many opportunities for expansion. Cultural aspects that stood out to him as he first encountered this New World civilization included the religion. In Mexico, the people did not have an established religion. In Europe, the main religion was Christianity. Mexico lacked spiritual value.

2. According to Diaz, ways that Montezuma was different from other Mexicans was that he was tall and skinny. Montezuma had little hair and his eyes showed love and compassion at certain moments. His skin was also lighter than the other Mexicans. These differences appeared as conventional, because Montezuma was the leader and should stand out from the group; and be different in a way that makes him better than them.

3. Mexico differed from what Diaz expected to find to the extent that he thought it was going to be a poor place. He was surprised when he came to Mexico and discovered the huge amount of riches they had. The previous explorers might have shaped his expectations and his sense of wonder because the earlier explorers went to places that were very poor. Also, the Native Americans that they have already saw made Diaz think the Mexicans would be similar to them.

4. The resource is very reliable, because it was written in first person by a soldier who was actually there when they were exploring. Although, the resource was written years after the exploration of Mexico took place. This means some of the information might not be as true and other important details could have been left out because the writer could have forgotten them.

Kevin Tucker said...

1. One thing that Diaz noticed that was comparable to European society was the large towns built by lakes like many large European settings. One thing that stood out to Diaz was how the people put their hand on the ground and kissed their hand as a sign of peace.

2. According to Diaz, Montezuma was dressed in the best atire and in alot of gold which made him very different from the people. This didn't seem bizarre to Diaz because Montezuma is a leader and Diaz is used to seeing a leader wearing the best things.

3. One thing that Diaz might have expected but not seen was more people being Christain. He probably would think this because of all of the Europeans moving to this region and influencing it.

4. Yes it is a reliable source because it was written by someone who was there and experienced everything first hand instead of just hearing about it back home.

Izabella G. said...

1. Diaz had realized that Mexico had a society that had many similarities and differences to European society. Just like Europe, Mexico had been filled with resources such as gold. It also had a set religion and looked up to one person as their leader. Since they did not follow Christianity, certain cultural aspects had stood out to Diaz which made him feel that they lacked spiritual value. He had encountered all the rituals Montezuma had performed such as human sacrifice, the consumption of flesh of those sacrificed and not allowing anyone to look him directly in his eyes.

2. Montezuma appeared different from other Mexicans because of the way he looked and his role in society. Diaz had compared him from other Mexicans by describing his appearance as being tall of stature, lighter skinned and having shorter hair with eyes that were filled with love. He had also been of higher status since the people of society had worshipped him as if he was a god. They would make sacrifices for him and treat him as royalty by not looking him in the eyes or speaking to him first. This had appeared conventional to Diaz because it had made Montezuma more distinguishable amongst all the other Mexicans since he was their leader.

3. Mexico had differed greatly from what Diaz expected to find. Diaz did not expect to find Mexico being a well-ordered and wealthy country as it had been. He had been impressed with the way Montezuma had built and controlled his empire as well as the many different resources and riches presented to him. Diaz may have been shocked to see that a country that didn’t follow the same religious principles as his own had been doing so well. Past explorers and their stories may have shaped his expectations. Their opinions could have led to Diaz having a low expectation for Mexico.

4. This resource could be found as reliable to use for future information. It had been written by a soldier that had encountered these events firsthand and had been there for it all. He had described everything in great detail though it had been written after the entire experience which could question some of what he wrote. Diaz had included his biases by including his thoughts on their religion and belief in human sacrifices. He had continuously compared their religion to European society.

Christina Popik said...

1) According to Diaz, Mexico was pretty similar to the European society. Mexico had many riches and wonders. However, there are some differences between the two. The European society believed in Christianity, while Mexico didn’t have a set religion. Also, Mexico has a few different cultural aspects. Besides a few family members, no one could look Montezuma in the eye. People would also put cloth down so he didn’t touch the bare earth.

2) According to Diaz, Montezuma was different from other Mexicans because he was tall, thin, and had short hair. Also, he didn’t have a dark complexion. Montezuma also had eyes with the expression of love or severity, at certain moments. These differences are conventional because Montezuma should be better than the Mexicans because he is a leader and should stand out.

3) Mexico differed from what Diaz expected to find because Mexico turned out to be a very rich and wealthy country. They also had a very good civilization. Previous explorations probably shaped his expectations; Diaz probably lowered his expectations of places over time after being surprised by how poor some areas were after exploring them.

4) The source is reliable considering it was written by Diaz, someone who was actually there. Although the source was written years after the event, it took Diaz 30 years to write and you can tell he really took his time on it and he used a lot of detail from his experience. Biases used in the text related to religion.

Chris "Bogey" Bogardus said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico compared to European society with similiraties and differences. For example of a difference, Mexicans really had no set religion, and The Europeans however had a set religio which was Christianity. Cultral aspects that stood out to him were that no one was allowed a glimpse at Montezuma except his four newphews and cousins. But Diaz, did notice that both societies were with many great riches.

2.According to Diaz, Montezuma differed from other Mexicans because he was the leader. Also, he was basically made of gold and jewels. In addition, as Montezuma as walking others would spread cloth under his feet so he could not touch the bare ground. The customs seemed conventional to Diaz because Montezuma was the ruler at the time.
3. Mexico differed from Diaz expectaions because he thought that Mexico would be much more poorer than what he saw with all the great wonders around him. The reason why is because he traveled before and saw many other countries that were poor and unable to do the certian things Mexico did.
4. The resource is in someways reliable and unreliable. This is because Diaz, the person that actually went through the traveling wrote the source. However it took him thirty years to complete the excerpt. Some things could've crept out of his mind as he was writing.

Nick Yousse said...

1) European society and Mexican society were different in a few aspects. Diaz noted that Mexicans did not follow the Christian ways as most Europeans did. also their city was filled vastly with riches and precious objects. Montezuma was treated differently than anyone in the European society. no one other than family looked him in the eyes and he did not walk directly on earth.

2) Montezuma was much different then others of Mexican society. he was tall and slim. he had lighter skin than most. lastly because he was king he was treated like a god. he looked different and stood out to amplify his leadership position.

3) Mexico was not what Diaz expected to find upon arrival. he expect to find a poor, uncivilized area. instead he discovered a rich governed city.

4) overall the source is reliable. it was written by someone who took place in the time of events. on the other end it was written after the time, and the author could not remember some events that took place.

Edard loves pags said...

1. Mexico compared to European society according to Diaz because they both had many wonders and lots of riches but one thing that Mexico did not have the spiritual values that the European society had. A cultural aspect that stood out to Diaz when he encountered the New World civilization is that none of the people that lived there looked Montezuma in the eyes and also the fact that they treated him as their god. Another thing he noticed is that the people were very much into human sacrifices being given to their god Montezuma.

2. The ways that Montezuma was different then all of the other Mexicans are that he was tall and thin and also his hair was not very long like the rest of the Mexicans. These features appeared convention to Diaz because Montezuma was a ruler and he should look very much different then all of the rest of the Mexicans.

3. Mexico differed from what Diaz thought that it would be like because when he first went to Mexico he did not think that they would be such a rich and developed country. He thought they would be poorer and struggling to prosper and develop but they actually weren’t. The reason that he had such low expectations for Mexico is that he saw all of the Native Americans and how bad they were doing and he just thought that the Mexicans would be like them.

4. I believe that this source is very reliable. I would say this because it was written off of the account of someone that was actually there when all of this was happening and had firsthand experience of all the encounters. Some bias that also could have been created in it is that the author could have thrown in some of his own ideas about what happened in order to sway readers’ ideas to think like he did and also it could be bias since it was written years after everything had actually happened.

Savannah N said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico was rich in resources, as was Europe. He found it different in their culture that Montezuma was not looked at directly. But religion is what Diaz had brought up most. Diaz was Christian and therefore believed in monotheism. Having these people hahd the belief in more than one god was discordant.

2. Montezuma was indeed different according to Diaz. He had adoration towards everyone, however he was treated like a God by his fellow rabble. Montezuma was given sheets to place his feet over so they would not touch the ground and you were not to speak unless spoken too. His features were described as tall, slender, and around his 40's with a black beard. But in a way, as a leader, he was also suppose to stand out from the rest.

3.Diaz did not expect Mexico to be so affluent and well organized. Diaz thought that it was not going to be so systematized. His expectations may had been low due to his trust in Christianity that the Mexicans did not have, or maybe he had thought that they would not be as developed as Spain or the New World.

3. The writer was a soldier at the time, I believe he was present to all those important events but I think It might not be as a reliable source. Only because their is bias as to religion and what they thought at the time was the right. When Montezuma could have documented an entirely different view of Mexico and the events that took place. Plus, the documents where written numerous years later, memory might have been blurred or changed.

Brooke H said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexican and European society was similar. They both had many riches but one difference he noticed was that Mexico had no set religion. Some cultural aspects that stood out to Diaz was that no one could ever look at Montezuma full in the face except his four nephews and cousins and they put cloth on the ground so his feet never touched the bare earth.

2. According to Dias, Montezuma was different from other Mexicans because he was tall, thin, and had a beard that looked handsome. He was also a very clean person and took a bath every evening. This appeared conventional to Diaz because he was the ruler and should stand out from the other Mexicans.

3. Mexico differed from how Diaz expected it because he pictured Mexico being much poorer. He was very suprised at all the riches they had. Previous explorers and places he visited may have shaped his expectations of Mexico.

4. The resource is somewhat reliable because it was written by Diaz, someone who was actually there and it contains a lot of details. However, it was translated from the original in spanish and written after the events took place. So, some details may have been changed or left out.

Dianka said...

1) According to Diaz Europe and Mexico seemed to have a similar society for the reason that they both seemed to be rich in resources. This gave Mexico the possibility of expanding itself as well as having plenty of opportunities. However, the thing Diaz seemed to point out the most was the difference in Mexico and Europe's religion. Europe had a set religion, Christianity, following only one God, while Mexico did not have a set religion. Cultural aspects that also stood out to Diaz which he saw at some rituals preformed by Montezuma was how the people were not able to look him in the eye and could not speak to him first, he was not able to touch the bare Earth, as well as the practice of human consumption after human sacrifice was preformed.
2) Ways in which Montezuma differed from other Mexicans was that Montezuma was much taller and skinnier than the rest of the Mexicans and his skin complexion was also lighter than the complexion of the Mexicans. He also had shorter hair and looked much more cleaner than the rest of them. He also differed from other Mexicans for the obvious reason of him being the leader and having a higher status in Mexico. According to Diaz, this appeared to be conventional because Montezuma was the leader and the one who is the leader should be easily distinguished and show power from the way they appear to rest of society.
3) Mexico differed from what Diaz expected to find in multiple ways. First of all, Diaz did not expect to find Mexico to be such a rich and developed country, he was surprised at how Montezuma kept Mexico so well-ordered and established. Diaz also probably expected to find Mexico following the same set religion as Europe was following but it turns out that Mexico did not have a set religion which left Diaz flabbergasted. What may have shaped his expectations were the stories of past explorers or even places he had been to before that he thought would be similar to Mexico.
4) Based on who wrote this and when it was written these excerpts are a reliable source. It was written in the first person by a soldier who lived through these exact moments and experienced it up close and personal. It may be little debatable because of the fact that the excerpts were finished several years after but the important facts would not be forgotten. The biases presented by Diaz were the religions between the groups of people as well as the Gods and Goddesses presented in these excerpts by him.

Airiel Vega said...

1. Mexican society compared to European society was a little different. In Mexico, they had a lot of riches and a very beautiful sight; also their religion wasn't Christianity. Diaz noticed that people wouldn't look Montezuma directly in the eye unless it was his relatives. Also that human sacrifice was a very important aspect to them.

2. Montezuma was tall and slender with a symmetry of his body that was beautiful. His hair wasn't that long but it was very thick by his ears. He had a thin black beard and had eyes that held love or severity at the right moments. This appeared as conventional to Diaz because Montezuma is the leader and leaders should stand out from the rest of the people.

3. Diaz expected Mexico to be less developed than it was. It was also richer than he thought it would be. His expectations might have been based off of what he had seen with the Native Americans. He probably expected the rest of the civilizations he found to be at the same level in development.

4. The resource is reliable because it was written in first person by someone who was there at all the important events that took place while Diaz was in Mexico. The only downfall is that this was written a while after these events happened which could cause the memories to be tainted and different than they actually were. A bias was that he mentioned that they didn't have a set religion or a God.

Allison F. said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico had many similarities and differences compared to Europe. For example, Mexico had many wonders and riches in resources like Europe. But, Diaz noticed that they didn't have a set religion. In Europe, everyone followed Christianity, and in Mexico they did not. One cultural aspect that stood out to Diaz as he first encountered this New World civilization was that no one looked Montezuma directly in the eye, and only his family would look at him. They also believed in human sacrifices.

2. According to Diaz, Montezuma was different from other Mexicans because he was very tall and slender. He also had a lighter skin tone than most Mexicans, and his eyes showed love and compassion at certain times. This appeared to be conventional to Diaz because Montezuma was the leader and should stand out, and be different from his people.

3. From what Diaz expected to find, he didn't think Mexico would be as civilized as it was. He was also very suprised and amazed at all the riches Mexico possessed. Diaz had such low expectations for Mexico because of the way he saw Native Americans live. Also, past explorers could've shaped Diaz's thoughts and expectations from the places they've seen and traveled to.

4. This resource is very reliable. It was written from a first hand experience from a soldier who was there through many important events. Some people may not fully believe everything that took place according to this soldier because he wrote it a few years after these events occurred. One bias is that he noticed that the Mexicans didn't have a set religion.

Jon Han said...

Jon Han said.....
1. According to Daiz the Mexican society in some ways mirrored the Spanish society. They both possessed an abundance of resources and was very rich. Also these two societies each had a main religion as well as a single ruler. However Mexico lacked the spiritual values that Spain's Christian church possessed. One difference that caught Diaz's attention was how the people were not able to look Montezuma in the eye and could not speak to him first, he was not able to touch the bare Earth.
2. Montezuma, according to Diaz was different from other Mexicans, because he was tall and slender, but also was very thin and had very little hair. Diaz described him to be in his forties, tall, slender, a black beard he thought made him handsome. He was very clean and the people treated him as a God. The Mexicans could not look him in the eye or wouldn't let his bare feet touch the earth. He also possessed a lighter tone of skin. These conventional differences made it so that he would be distinguished from the rest of the people.
3. The reality of Mexico's societies greatly differed from Diaz's primary expectations. Diaz had been expecting a poor un organized community but was shocked when he had seen the riches and wealthy society of Mexico. Though the society had hints of primitive behavior, Diaz was impressed with Montezuma ability to build and controll a city so well without using the same religious practices. Previous stories from voyages across the Atlantic may have swayed Diaz's initial opinions to be so low.
4. I think that this information is very reliable due to the author who experienced these evens first hand. Also it was written by a soldier who wrote in great detail which tells me that many important events were all recorded. Diaz had included his biases by commenting on the events that occurred there. Also his thoughts on the different religious practices such as human sacrifices. he often compared the Spanish society to the unique cultures of Mexico.

Paul said...

1. Mexican society was different from European society because they both dressed differently. Motecusuma wore very fancy clothing. Such as, he wore boots with jewels and solid gold. Also it seems as though if you supported Motecusuma, you had to dress richly as well. Some cultural aspects that stood out to Diaz, were that people put cloth down in front of Motecusuma so his feet didn't touch the earth. Also no one looked him in the eye except his family.

2. According to Diaz, Motecusuma was a slender and tall man. He wasn't that dark either. He was also a very clean person. He also had two wives and that he liked to see in private with no one else. This would seem conventional to Diaz because he was the ruler so he should look different.

3. Diaz did not expect Mexico to be as rich as they were. He was surprised at how many riches they had such as gold, stone. etc. Diaz' expectations were shaped like this because of the Native Americans who have once lived there.

4. This passage is a reliable source because it was written by a person who was there at that time and actually witnessing everything that has happened.

Joanna C said...

1. Mexico compared differently to European society because of a difference in religion. They also dressed differently than each other. Indians had never seen the likes of them and they never saw the likes of the Indians. Diaz and the rest had never seen horses, for example. A cultural aspect that shocked Diaz greatly was their sacrifices.
2. Moctezuma differed from the other Mexicans because he dressed in a richer fashion. He wore gold jewelry, and attire that made him appear more superior. Indians looked up to him. To Diaz, this seemed conventional because someone of a higher authority should stand out, and be more distinct letting people know that they are more superior.
3. Diaz was surprised that Mexico had so many riches, like gold and jewelry. He was surprised because when the Indians were there they were very poor with no luxuries or anything like that, and he was surprised at the transformation.
4. This resource is very reliable because is a primary resource. This means it is all true from Diaz’s point of view. He saw what happened, and he was there at the time. He was biased towards the fact that there was no official religion.

Chase Desautels said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico was a place of great wealth and wonders, but was different because they did not have Christianity. Some of the cultural aspects Diaz noticed were that they believed in human sacrifice and no one looked directly at Montezuma.

2. Montezuma was different from other Mexicans for many reasons. One being that had lighter skin and was thinner than the rest of the Mexicans. This seemed normal because as the leader of his people he was suppose to be better than them.

3. Diaz was surprised to see that they had great riches and were more developed than he had thought. His expectations could be shaped by the stories of other travelers and the accounts of the Native Americans.

4. The resource is a first hand account of what happen, but the author would be bias to the country of Spain and it was written a very long time ago. So it is a pretty good account of what happened.

Justine said...

1) According to Diaz, he thought that Mexico had many riches and wonders, like jewels and gold, but Mexico didn't believe in a religion or the one true god. Diaz thought that believing in a religion is very important, that is why he thought Spain was wonderful. When Diaz first arrived at the New Civilization, there were some cultural aspects that stood out to him. For example, Montezuma had people put cotton clothes on the ground so his feet wouldn't touch the bare earth. Also, people wouldn't look at Montezuma in the face, they would look down. The only people that looked at him in the face was his family. Diaz also noticed that sacrifice was an important custom because in temples there was blood on the ground and they would eat body parts and blood of the person that was killed.

2) Montezuma was different from other Mexicans. He was tall, slender, and thin, with short hair, and a thin, black beard. His eyes had the expression of love or severity and he would bathe every evening. He also had two wives, and concubines, which were his daughters. He was perfectly innocent of any unnatural crimes and he was very well dressed. This seemed conventional to Diaz because Montezuma was the ruler and he had to stand out from the other people in his land. He is supposed to be the best, like a king would be in Spain.

3) Diaz expected Mexico to not be as developed and not have that many riches. These might have been his expectations based on the other explorers' findings and the information about the Native Americans. Therefore when he first encountered the land and arrived at the market he was very surprised to see all of the different items, like gold, stones, and weapons.

4) This is a reliable source because it is written by a person that was actually there when these events occurred. Even though this source was written 30 years after the events happened, it is still reliable because it is very detailed, easy to understand, and there are many facts. It is also possible that some of the facts were forgotten or untrue because the author stated he could not remember everything exactly. This work is not biased because he just noted about the customs and their beliefs. He just wrote about everything he explored.

Gavin Colwell said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico and Europe had some similarities in society. A major similarity is in leaders. In both societies, there is an all powerful leader. The leaders would often be dressed in riches to show their power. It was described by Diaz that Motecusuma was, "richly set with jewels and...soles...made of solid gold." A cultural aspect that stood out to him was that no one was allowed to look at him in the face. The only people who could look at him directly were his family members.

2. Montezuma was different from the other Mexicans because he was dressed in extravagant clothing and jewels. His riches and jewels made him look superior to the rest of the Mexicans. This was conventional to Diaz because he could easily identify who was the leader.

3. Mexico differed from what Diaz expected to find because they were a highly developed society with many riches. He expected to find a poor civilization that was not very developed. He expected this because of all the other accounts of the other Native American tribes.

4. This was a reliable source because it is a primary source account. I could tell this because it used words like "we," "I," and "our." Although it was written many year after he experienced it, it includes many details. It may have some bias because it was written by a person who had never seen a civilization like this.

Alec Shackett said...

1. Diaz stated that Mexico was similar and different to Europe in many ways. The most mentioned difference was that the people of Mexico didn't believe in Christianity and Diaz called their gods fake.

2. Montezuma was described by Diaz as being treated godlike. He was tall and slender. His hair wasn't very long except where it hung down on his ears. It was conventional because the leader was supposed to stand out against the regular citizens.

3. Diaz expected to find a poor and unorganized civilization. Instead he found a land of many riches and things that didn't exist in Europe.

4. The resource is very reliable because it was written by Diaz himself while he experienced what was going on.

Emma C said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico had many wonders and riches, but they were lacking in spiritual value. Some of the cultural aspects that stood out to him were how no one could look at Montezuma directly in the eyes, they had to put cotton clothes on the ground because Montezuma's feet couldn't touch the ground, and these people really believed in human sacrifice.

2. Montezuma was described, by Diaz, as a tall, thin, light-skinned, slender man with short hair and a beard. His eyes showed love or severity when they needed to. He had nicer clothes than everyone and a lot of jewel, which made sense because these nicer items showed that he was the ruler.

3. Diaz didn't expect Mexico to be as rich as it was, he was amazed at the amount of riches they possessed. I believe these were his expectations because of the findings of explorers before him and the information of the Native American tribes.

4. This resource was very reliable because it was written by someone who was actually there when it happened. It was written years after all of the events talked about took place, and there could be some facts that were untrue because the author said he couldn't remember some things, but I believe that this source is reliable.

Miranda Zygmunt said...

1) According to Diaz, he believed that Mexico had many riches and wonders such as, jewels, gold, and the the Great Square (marketplace). However, Mexico lacked the religion that Spain had. Mexico believed in many gods and gave sacrifices to their gods. However Diaz believed in his religion of Spain which was there was one God. The cultural aspects that stood out to him during his first encounter with this New World civilization were people didn't look Montezuma directly in the face except his family, people put cloth on the ground so Montezuma wouldn't have to walk on the ground, and people in Mexico strongly believed in human sacrifice to the gods and consuming human flesh.

2) According to Diaz, Montezuma was different from other Mexicans becuase he was tall, thin, and had shorter hair then usual. Also, he bathed often, waited at least four days to wear a dress again, had two lawful wives, and was innocent of crimes. This was conventional because he was the ruler and had to appear better then the rest of the citizens of Mexico.

3) Mexico differed from what Diaz thought it to be because he thought Mexico would be much less developed and more poor. However, when he got to Mexico, he found a developed country with many riches like gold and a great market. The expectations Diaz had might have been shaped by previous explorers who had been to Mexico before it became well developed.

4) The resource is very realiable because Bernal Diaz wrote the book after the Cortes expedition which Diaz participated in. Diaz was a part of the major events of the Conquest and was an eyewitness. However, the book was written thirty years after the Conquest so some facts weren't remembered. I do not think this is biased because Diaz was explaining what happened during the expedition to Mexico.

myranda williams said...

1.According to Diaz, Mexico had many riches and wonders, but Mexico didn't believe in a religion of one god like European's, also they dressed very different. European's and Mexican's both were rich in resources. Diaz thought that believing in a religion was extremely important. Some cultural aspects that stood out to Diaz were that nobody besides a close relative would look into his eyes but instead keep their heads down when near or close by him, another aspect is that Montezuma had people put cotton clothes on the ground so his feet wouldn't touch the bare earth. He also noticed that sacrifice was very important to them.

2.Montezuma was different from other Mexicans because as described by Diaz he was tall, thin, light-skinned, and a slender man with short hair and a beard and if though of as conventional then in Diaz's eyes it meant that he was a typical monarch or leader who stood out from the rest with his more fancy clothes and jewels.

3.Mexico was found different from what he would of thought and expected because Diaz didnt have much of things to compare it to himself besides what he heard from other explorers info and the Native Americans. So when he arrived in Mexico and he found that they were organized and had lots of resources he was surprized because he was expecting something very unorganized and poor of resources.

4.Diaz is the on who wrote it and he was one of the five soldiers who were with cortez at almost all times.These writings were written years after the events happened so yeah some things that were written to be said by Cortes and Montezuma could be a little bit mixed up, but it gives the main idea of things that were said. This resource is very reliable because of what has been stated and because Diaz was there when it all happen.

Julian F said...

1) According to Diaz, both Europe and Mexico were both rich in resources but the lack of spiritual value differentiated it from Europe. However their cultures were different. Cultural aspects that stood out to him as he first encountered this New World Civilization were that there was no Christianity. Also Montezuma was treated and worshipped as a god who was given sacrifices which really stood out to Diaz. No one could even look him in the eye but his family. Diaz hasn't seen anything like this before.

2) What separated Montezuma from the other Mexicans was his shorter hair, lighter skin tone, and the way he dressed. He separated himself from the other Mexicans by dressing with lots of gold which the others didnt have. This did not appear bizarre to Diaz since the leader is supposed to stand out and show he's better. It was conventional to him.

3) Diaz expected to find Mexico to be more poor and not as advanced or developed as it was. Explorers he has met in the past could have shaped his expectations. The Native Americans he had met in the past could have shaped his expectations as well.

4) I believe the resource is reliable. The author of the passage was written by Diaz himself and was a primary source of what happened. There was much detail and he was bias. He wrote down everything that happened along with what he thought and feelings.

Jimmy V said...

1. Diaz explains how Mexico has great resources like spices and gold. This allows Mexico to have a very strong market place which reminds Diaz of his home town. He also mentions how slavery exists in Mexico as well as Europe. Diaz does notice that Mexico is polytheistic which greatly conflicts Spain's very strong Roman Catholic believes. Some of the cultural actions that Diaz noticed was that only Montezuma's family could look in his eyes and that he needed a barrier from his feet to the bare ground. Another cultural difference that stood out was the fact that they sacrificed people as a religious event.

2. Montezuma took a bath everyday which was different than most because he was very clean. He was a thin man and he was also much lighter skinned than the other Mexicans. He also had two wives which neither one knew of the other. Diaz found this conventional because as a major leader for Mexico he was suppose to look better and have better things than the people of his country.

3. Diaz expected that Mexico would had been a less developed country because during that time period not many people had much knowledge of the western worlds. Diaz had to wonder how long they had been living in the western world for and why no one had seen or heard of them. He was surprised by their marketing and the fact that they had many riches like gold and other valuable items.

4. I feel like this is not a reliable source. Even though Diaz had been on the Conquest, doesn't mean his information is correct. It took him over 30 years to write his own account which means he must of had a hard time remembering. Also it wasn't published for another 57 years in which people could have edited things for their sake. It is biased because it has no accounts of the Mexican people and is only written from the accounts of what Diaz says.

brian c said...

1. Diaz said that Mexico had a lot of riches and valuables. He thought it was different because they were not practicing Christianity.Some cultural aspect that he noticed was human sacrifice and that the people wouldn't look at Montezuma

2. Diaz noticed that Montezuma was tall and skinny. Also that his hair wasn't very long. He thought this was good because he thought leaders should look different.

3.Diaz didn't think Mexico was going to be very wealthy or advanced. He probably thought this because of the Native Americans and things other explorers said.

4.I think that the source is reliable because it was a primary source. Also because he wrote down everything that happened. Another thing is that he was bias about gods.

Katherine Acquavella said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico and Europe had lots of riches and wonders but Mexico didn't believe in monotheism like the Europeans. Europe and Mexico both were rich in resources. Diaz believed that religion was necessary. The cultural aspects that stood out to Diaz were that Montezuma had people put cotton clothes on the ground so his feet did not touch the bare earth, a second aspect that he noticed was he sacrifice was important to them.

2. Montezuma was described by Diaz as a very tall and thin slender man. He had better clothes than everyone and wore lots of jewelry. This made sense because the quality of items Montezuma had showed that he was the ruler.

3. Mexico had differed greatly from what Diaz expected to find. Diaz did not expect to find Mexico being a rich and/or disciplined country as it was. Diaz was probably shocked to see that a country did not follow the same religious principles. His expectations may have been influenced by his life experiences and other explorers he had encountered. Diaz did not think any other land could be as good as his home land without following a structured religion.

4. This information is reliable because it was written while these events were actually happening. It is very detailed. The biases that were present were about the gods and goddesses.

Sean Maziuk said...

1. According to Diaz, on similarity to Europe that Mexico had, was that it many riches and wonders such as jewels and resources. However, Mexico lacked the monotheistic beliefs that the Europeans had, as the Mexicans had never heard of Christianity. They had many gods, and treated Montezuma as one of them. No one was allowed to look him in the eyes, except for his family. There were also human sacrifices, among other gifts for Montezuma which stood out to Diaz.

2. Diaz described Montezuma as tall and lean, with shorter hair than the others. He also had a lighter tone of skin color. This was viewed as conventional by Diaz, because Montezuma, the ruler, stood out from his subjects. His physical appearance was greater than that of the Mexicans.

3.When coming to Mexico, Diaz expected to find an undeveloped, poor civilization. However, he arrived and found a civilization with many riches such as gold and other valuables. I believe that Diaz expected the lack of a civilization in Mexico due to the previous accounts of the Native Americans, and their lack of technology.

4.I believe that this is a reliable resource. It was written by someone who witnessed these people himself, and was able to take in their way of life. The fact that Diaz wrote this because he didn't agree with the inaccurate and biased acounts previous supports the reliability as well. The biases that I found present were his views on polytheism and human sacrifice. He continually compared their beliefs, to his Roman Catholic beliefs, stating the differences.

Frankie Marcucio said...

1-Diaz said that while In Mexice there were nice riches, but didn't have the same spiritual greatness as Spain. He also found it interesting how nobody looked at Montezuma directly, and he noticed that they made many human sacrifices.

2. Montezuma's fancy clothing and jewelry made him stand out from other Mexicans, and made him seem superior than the others. Diaz found that this made it easy to tell that Montezuma was a leader.

3) Diaz isn't expect to find Mexico as advanced as he did. These low expectations probably came from the lack of technology the Native Americans had, as well as what other explorers had told him.

4. The resource is reliable because it was written from a firsthand experience, rather than being based on speculation or stories/legends.

Ryan D said...

1. The Mexican society was different compared to the European society. According to Diaz, Mexico had many items of higher quality including gold which was furnished throughout the place in which they stayed. The things that stood out to Diaz was how no one was allowed to look at Motecusuma and all of their heads were bowed forward.

2. Motecusuma was very thin and slender. His hair was short but covered his ears. His skin color was not very brown which and had a thin black beard that was "handsome", according to Diaz. Diaz was expecting Motecusuma to have a better appearance than other Mexicans because he was a ruler.

3. Mexico was very different from what Diaz expected in which they had many more riches than he expected. His expectations could have been shaped by sayings of previous explorer.

4. This resource is very reliable because it was written by someone who was present at the time. This was also written many years after the actual events which could then account for the complete truth of everything that happened.

Matt Vartelas said...

1-According to Diaz, Mexico had vast riches and wonders which were similar to those in Europe. Some cultural aspects that stood out to Diaz were that they did not practice Christianity, they treated Montezuma like a god, and performed human sacrifices.

2-Diaz discribed Montezuma as tall and lean with shorter hair and a cleaner apperance. Diaz considered Montezuma's differences from the other Mexicans conventional because he was the leader and thought he should stand out.

3-Diaz expected to find a very poor and undeveloped civilization. But when he arrived he was surprised at the vast riches and technology of the Mexicans. His expectations were most likely set by the Native Americans who were a much less wealthy and developed civilization.

4-I believe the resource is reliable because it was written by someone who witnessed the events firsthand and interacted with the Mexicans. But the writtings were written years after the events so it is possible certain details could be slightly incorrect. Some biases that are present are his thoughts about the type of religion they believed in, thoughts about human sacrifice, and comparison to European society.

Dallas OMeara said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico wasn't as spiritual as Europe but they were richer than them. The cultural aspects that stood out to him was that nobody ever looked at Montezuma in the eye and they wouldn't talk to him unless they were spoken to him first.

2. According to Diaz, Montezuma was skinny, light skinned, and had a weak heart. This was conventional to Diaz becuase he thinks all leaders should be seperated from thier followers in some way and Montezuma seperated himself by looking different.

3. Diaz didn't expect Mexico to be as rich as it was or to have a well-working civilization as it had. He wondered what Mexico might have been like based on the expectations he had from other explorers before him. He might have believed what other explorers had written down or said to him.

4. The resource is very reliable because it was written by someone who was present at the time when the events were occuring. The biases that are present are that since it happened such a long time ago, some facts like places or names of things, may have been mixed up with others.

Lucas Q. said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexican society has many riches (resources) and wonders. There was many similarities and differences between Mexican and European culture. Both were similar in the fact that they both have a religion and a leader, but were also different in the fact that Mexicans practiced ritual of human sacrifice/consumption. Also no one dared to look Montezuma in the eye besides his family.

2. Montezuma appeared to be very tall and thin, according to Diaz's account. Also it says that he had rather short hair and lighter colored skin compared to the rest of his people. He was very clean and wise/knowledgeable. This was conventional to Diaz because he was the leader of his people and was supposed to be more godly/better than everyone else.

3. Mexico highly differed then what Diaz expected. Diaz didn't realize the vast wealth and riches Mexico had to offer, His expectations were mostly based off of the earlier explorations by other explorers and the less organized society of the natives.

4. This sources is reliable because it was written at the time the events were taking place also it was written by a soldier who was there and had first-hand accounts of important events that happened.

Ola Tanellari said...

1. Diaz compared Mexico to Europe to be very similar yet very different at the same time. The two places were similar because both Mexico and Europe had an abundance of resources, examples being gold and jewels. Another similarity between the two places was the fact that they both had a powerful leader. One difference that Diaz noticed between the places was the fact the Europe had a set religion, which was Christianity and Mexico did not share that same belief. The cultural aspects that stood out to him during his first encounter with this New World civilization were people didn't look Montezuma directly in the face except his family. It also surprised him to find out that people put cloth on the ground so he would not touch the ground directly and believed heavily in human sacrifice and eating the flesh.
2. According to Diaz, Montezuma appeared different from the other Mexicans because he was taller and thinner than everyone else. He also appeared to have shorter hair and lighter skin accompanied by eyes that seemed to be filled with love and compassion at times. Montezuma was also cleaner than everyone else and everyone looked up to him and worshiped him. He was the leader and the people even made sacrifices for him. It appeared as conventional to Diaz because he stood out from society, resembling his role as leader.
3. Mexico differed from what Diaz expected to find because it was wealthy and well off. Mexico had many resources and opportunities that made it so rich. It was also vastly developed compared to what Diaz thought he would find upon arriving to the country. The empire was well built and well controlled by Montezuma. Diaz was surely surprised to find out that a country without his beliefs and religion, Christianity, could be doing so well and not falling apart without the religious aspect to hold it together. Diaz expectations of Mexico could have been shaped by earlier explorers, rumors, and stories about the country.
4. Based off of the time period and the author of the excerpts, they are very reliable. It was written in first person by someone who lived through everything that was going on during the time period of Diaz’s stay in Mexico. The only thing that may affect some of the little details could be that the writing was done a few years later than the actual time, causing some things to possibly be incorrect, mostly little things one cannot always remember. Some of the biases in the reading consisted of Diaz’s thoughts on the human sacrifices and their religion.

Kaitie Dow said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico's society was quite similar to that of European society, but at the same time had its differences. They were similar in the way that they were both rich with in resources such as gold. Although Mexican did not have a set religion while the Europeans followed Christianity. Some cultural aspects that stood out to him were,how Mexico did not have one true god, and that no one would dare to look Montezuma directly in the eye. As well as their concern with human sacrifice.
2.According to Diaz, Montezuma had a lighter shade of skin than the rest of the Mexicans.He was tall and lean with little hair, he appeared to be much cleaner than the rest. This appeared conventional to Diaz because he was a leader and was supposed to stand out above all the rest.
3. Diaz did not expect Mexico to be as wealthy as it was when he arrived. He was impressed with the was Montezuma ran his empire and with all the riches. He was also surprised to see that they did not follow the same religion.
4. This resource is reliable in the way that it is written by a solider that was there at the time that this all happened. It is written from his own experience, therefore it is reliable to a good extent. Along with all the detail that was included. Diaz included biases in the way he added talked about the God's and religion overall, also with his thoughts on human sacrifices.

Samantha Hardiman said...

1)According to Diaz Mexican and European societies were similar, yet different at the same time. They were similar because of the riches and gold, however Mexico lacked the spiritual values that Spain had. The Spanish all followed Christianity while the Mexicans had no set god. Some cultural aspects that stood out to him were that no one would look Montazuma directly in the eyes and they believed in human sacrafices.

2)Montazuma was different than other Mexicans because he bathed often,had a lighter skin tone that the others, was tall and thin, and kept his shorter than others. This was conventional to Diaz because since he was the ruler, he should stand out and be different than the others.

3)Mexico was different from what Diaz had expected because Mexico was much more civilized and developed, and had many more riches than he expected. He was surprised that a country not following Christianity and without having a set religion could be doing so well. What he had heard from previous explorers could have shaped his expectations and formed opinions on why he was surprised by how well off Mexico was.

4)This source is reliable because it was written by a solider who experienced this first hand, however it was written after all the events had taken place. The events were very specifically detailed which also makes me believe it is a reliable source.

Ruben Caiza Jr. said...

1. According to Diaz, Mexico compared to European Society only because it had a lot of wonders. Their culture that appealed to Diaz were; no one would look in his eyes except his family and they would put clothes on the ground so he wouldn't step on the ground.

2. Diaz did notice Montezuma was indeed different from the other Mexicans due to his physical attributes such as hair and height. Diaz believed this was fine because, as leader he should look different.

3. Mexico differed greatly from what Diaz's thoughts were. When he arrived he found a civilization that was like Europe with a monarchy. In addition, Diaz thought that mexico was poor but, upon his discovery they were very rich with gold.

4. This source is reliable because, it was written when these events occurred and by a witness who was there who saw him do these actions.

jaskaran singh said...

1.According to Diaz,Mexico was same as well as different in some aspect.First of all, it was guided by leader was tied up by a common government and faith it was really well developed and rich the n other colonies which were being discovered. but it was different as they made sacrifice and ate flesh which was not common in Spain.
2.Montezuma, was svelte,having black beard.He was tall and light colored then other people.His eyes was filled with generosity and love,and as mentioned in the text written by Diaz making him and i don't think it was bizarre for him
3First of all Diaz was really expecting tribal people with no economic and social sense but he find was a well civilized, rich and monarch ruled Mexico that in many expect was similar to Europe
4Source is quite reliable as it was written by an eyewitness not by a person who just heard some thing from someone about Mexico.The only thing which can be skeptical about this text is it was written years after so some key information could be lost and biases were fake idols and sacrifice etc.

Nicole Thomas said...

1. Diaz compared Mexico to European society. He said that the societies were similar but different at the same time. Some cultural aspects that stood out to him were the government and religion.
2. Some ways Montezuma was different from the other Mexicans was he was built different and he was a different skin tone. He didn't think that it was bizarre because he was a monarch.
3. The riches differed from what Diaz expected to find. Maybe the Europeans told him stories of how the Mexicans were and he believed them but they were wrong.
4. I think the source was reliable because he was a primary source because he was there in Mexico when it happened. The biases that were presented was the religion.