The Final Countdown To...

Monday, June 1, 2015

Summer 2015-Blog Assignment #2

Jamestown


Perhaps students remember Captain John Smith from their childhood.
Imaginary John Smith Rendering
Of course, Disney was way off on the true John Smith.  He was quite a self promoter, and also helped get people to move towards Virginia after a gunpowder accident.  It seems his powder bag was ignited while he was still wearing it.

The Real Captain John Smith

While accident prone, it is true that Jamestown would not have survived without his guidance.  His edict "He who doesn't work, doesn't eat," may have been stolen from the Bible, but it also saved the struggling colony and fort.  It wasn't until resupply ships came (the First Supply, mentioned in the source title), that Jamestown really had a chance. On board, a young entrepreneur named John Rolfe.  His horticultural interests would change the fate of Jamestown and England's interest in American colonies forever.

The Assignment
A. Read What Happened Until the First Supply: The General History of Virginia  There is a question at the start, but there is also an answer at the end.  They're valuable, but not necessarily what we're going to look at as a class.

B. Following the commenting guidelines, answer ANY of the following questions (choose any 2 NON-CONSECUTIVE questions), and respond to them in the comments section of this post.


  1. What kind of audience does The General History of Virginia (1624) seem intended for?
  2. Characterize Smith's style of narration. Would you call him objective, subjective, passionate, deadpan, ironic, humorous, serious? Cite examples to support your assessment.
  3. One of the most famous stories in American history is that of Pocahontas's rescue of Smith.  Some later readers have questioned the truthfulness of this account, however. It has been noted, for example, that Smith did not even mention the incident in his first narrative, and the writer James Branch Cabell has suggested that Smith borrowed the story from a book the English writer Richard Hakluyt published in 1609 or from any one of many similar stories that are found around the world (52). Citing details from Smith's writing or his life, argue that the story is totally true, partially true, or totally false.
  4. How does Smith depict the Indians in this passage?  Make a list of words and phrases that support your interpretation.
  5. Where does Smith mention God in this piece?  Write out those lines.  What effect would this have had on Smith’s readers?
  6. How does Smith depict himself in his writing?  Support your answer with specific examples from the text.
  7. John Smith famously took Jamestown's poorly provisioned and disciplined settlers and "whipped them into shape."  He famously decreed "He who does not work, neither shall he eat" (though he took that from the Biblical 2nd Book of Thessalonians 3:10). Practicality and labor have been important parts of the American identity (what it means to be American) from the settlement of Jamestown to the modern day. Based on your reading of the textbook AND the reading from John Smith, does he present that "ethos"? Defend your answer with specific examples.

C. Return in a few days and read through the responses of others.  Again, following the commenting guidelines, provide feedback, criticism, or ask questions.  Also, if somebody responds to your comment, feel free to comment back, of course, being polite.  It will help promote positive dialogue in class later this year.

Both B & C must be completed to earn full credit for the assignment.

If Jamestown interested you, or you just want to know more, check out this interactive map of the original fort.  It's really cool. Here are two supplemental podcasts regarding Jamestown (both regarding the "starving time" 1 [cannibalism] and 2 [the shipwreck that saved Jamestown]) and one on the LOST colony of Roanoke!


139 comments:

Emily Thomas said...

6. Smith depicts himself as an explorer and the hero of the story by finding the Native Americans and taking care of them.

Emily Thomas said...

The kind of audience that The General History of Virginia (1624) seems intended for Historians, Teachers, and students who are researching the subject.

Hannah Roman said...

5. Smith mentions God in 3 areas of this piece. "Each hour [we were] expecting the fury of the savages, when God, the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the savages that they brought such plenty of their fruits and provisions that no man wanted.", "But Almighty God (by His divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion.", and "Yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it.…". These references have an effect on the readers, because if they piece it all together you can inference that Smith is stressing to us the goodness and the giving of God, and how he changed the barbarians ways, and with "strange means" he still provides. So in return we can get a sense of his view on God and what he wants us to know about Him from his experience.

Hannah Roman said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Hannah Roman said...

2. I think Smiths narrating style is deadpan. He states no emotion when he talks about his almost death, the things he was seeing while he was captured, tied up, etc. Many times while I was reading I would be confused on what his point was for particular sentences when there was no emotion to add on, and elaborate what he was trying to get across. For example, "Before a fire upon a seat like a bedstead he sat covered with a great robe made of raccoon skins, and all the tails hanging by." I thought it didn't make sense not to elaborate on types of sentences like this and jump to a different topic in the next sentence. I expected him to go on talking about what he thought about the tails hanging and if he was wondering why he did that. But instead he said "On either hand did sit a young wench of sixteen or eighteen years, and along on each side the house two rows of men.". He keeps leaving the emotion out and the whole passage is blank toned.

Janna Rudy said...

5. Smith mentions God in three areas of this historical evidence. "Each hour [we were] expecting the furry of the savages, when God, the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the savages that they brought such plenty of their fruit and provisions that no man wanted.", " But Almighty God (by His divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion." and "Yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it...". This cold have effect on the readers because Smith is showing what good God has done for him. From changing the hearts of the savages to the stern barbarians God has done good to Smith.

Janna Rudy said...

1. The type of audience that "The General History of Virginia(1624)" seems intended for is someone with some pre-knowledge of what was happening during the 1600'2 and is familiar with the history.

Erin Maloney said...

Smith depicts the Indians as evil and he seems as though he is disgusted by them. He refers to them as savages all throughout the passage, and other demeaning terms. "Which done, three more such like devils came rushing in with the like antique tricks," "and then came in three
more as ugly as the rest." Also, "more like a devil than a man, with some two hundred more as black as himself." You can tell he looks down upon them and judges them because of their appearance and their rituals.

Erin Maloney said...

The type of audience The General History of Virginia seems intended for those who are interested in the early settlement time period or what happened between the Indians and the English settlers at the time.

Bella Sanchez said...

Dear Hannah,
I found that I can relate to your comment as I was quite confused while reading the passage too. I agree with your opinion of Smith's writing style to be deadpan. Throughout the passage it skipped around from Smith being captured and tortured to being let free with no climax or sense of urgency in between, everything was unusually monotone. In addition to your example, I have another that demonstrates the same type of writing style. This particular example shows that in an instant, John Smith went from being on the verge of dying to being served and treated kindly, showing no signs of relief or other emotions. "..Notwithstanding, within an hour after they tied him to a tree and as many as could stand about him prepared to shoot him... a tri-umphant manner led him to Orapaks, where he was after their manner kindly feasted and well used.." (page 3 paragraph 2)
Sincerely, Bella

Bella Sanchez said...

Dear Erin,
I agree with your standpoint on the way that Smith depicted the Indians and feel that you made a strong use of the passage with your examples and reasoning. I would like to build upon your post by including some of my own beliefs on the way John Smith depicted the Indians. In my opinion, John Smith was completely arrogant and belittled the Indians of their knowledge next to his. Smith mistakenly placed the blame of starvation and disregard to survival needs on other people. If he was as mighty as he made himself out to be, none of these problems would've happened in the first place. For example, he began talking of their journey (on page 2), and placing the blame on themselves for going unprepared of what could happen, but the blame for the loss of opportunity of the time and season to plant on the transporters. It was not the transporters fault that they didn't understand what they had agreed to. When everyone was starving the Indians provided insight and food which Smith felt entitled to rather than grateful for. Although they were on the same playing field and each could use goods the other had, Smith felt he was one step ahead and held dominance over the Indians.He felt they were much less intelligent and skilled than he was. Whereas in my book,the Indians had the upper-hand because they had all the skill and knowledge that they needed to live, they just needed the tools to make it happen unlike the settlers who had all of the tools and no brains to make a living. One fine example of this is when he was about to be killed and gave the chief of Pamunkey the ivory double compass dial. (page 3). In addition, on page 6 the passage winds up explaining how John Smith gave them two demi-culverins and in return the Indians shared provisions which saved many lives. In short, Captain Smith acted self righteous and entitled towards the Indians when they both needed each other in the long run.
Sincerely, Bella

Kara Pasnault said...

1. The General History of Virginia seems intended for the audience who enjoys informative readings on the early history of Jamestown and for those who would enjoy an account of what John Smith actually went through during that time.

Kara Pasnault said...

4. In this passage John Smith depicts the Indians as people much lower than himself and his people. Throughout the passage, he often refers to them as "savages", which is a demeaning term meaning uncivilized and uncontrolled. Later in the passage, he calls them "fiends and "devils" while they performed a ritual. Lastly as they were eating Smith tells how they ate in a "barbarous manner", meaning uncivilized yet again. Therefore, John Smith clearly depicts the Indians as primitive and barbaric people.

Ejona Gjata said...

1) "The General History of Virginia" is intended for the audience made up of the people who lived during the time that the Jamestown Colony was established. John Smith discusses the hardship faced when trying to colonize a new land, especially one that contains other peoples. He wrote this book to educate others that colonizing on another land requires stability, strength, and order. He wanted to educate the future peoples who planned to continue to colonize so they could be better prepared for what they are about to experience.

Ejona Gjata said...

4) When Smith talks about the Indians, he undermines them and depicts them more like animals rather than humans. He most frequently refers to them as "savages" when he discusses anything related to the Indians. When he referred to them shouting or chanting, he says it is a "hellish voice," and when he talks about the way they paint their faces and dress, he describes them as looking like "devils." He also stated that Powhatan looked "more like a devil than a man." He looks at them as beasts without souls, and little mercy.

Eryk Skowronski said...

1) "The General History of Virginia" is intended for an audience who enjoys readings about Jamestown and what happened between the Indians and the English. The Audience must also know about what was going on in the 1600s to full understand this text.

Ethan Iott said...

1. "The General History of Virginia" was intended to be written for those who are curious and interested in John Smith's Virginia Colony's beginning. Whether you are a student learning the history, a Historian researching the topic, or someone who is just curious about the past, this article provides a quick simple summary.

Eryk Skowronski said...

4) When Smith describes the Indians, he makes them seem like scum instead of actual human beings. " The savages having drawn from George Cassen whither Captain Smith was
gone, prosecuting that opportunity they followed him with three hundred
bowmen". When he was talking about them in the book he used the word "savage" to describe them. Later as the Indians started to perform their rituals, he refereed to them as "devils" because of their face paint.

Ethan Iott said...

4. Throughout the passage, Smith commonly talks down to the Indians and looks to them as if they aren't humans. Rather than accepting their face paint and uniforms, he describes them as being "devils, fiends and savages." When Smith saw them ate, he called them "barbarians." When he heard them chant, he described it as "a hellish voice." All these examples go to show that Smith sees them more as untamed animals instead of actual people.

Brooke Seymour said...

1. "The General History of Virginia" was intended to be written for individuals with prior knowledge and awareness of Jamestown and happenings of the 1600's. The passage is also clear to be preconceived towards an audience that is curious and interested in Jamestown and its origins.

Brooke Seymour said...

4. Smith depicts the Indians as inferior to himself and his people. He speaks of them as being animalistic and inhumane people. He often refers to them as "devils, friends and savages." When he heard their shouting and chanting he described their "hellish voice" and when he saw them eat he described it as a "barbarous manner."

Hannah Roman said...

Hi Ejona,
I agreed with you when you stated who the audience is intended for, I think that your reasons are very different from the others. I like how you stated the three requirements too, I could understand strength because of the sickness he endured...however I'm not sure about stability or order, can you please explain?

Keep up the good posting, Hannah

Kara Pasnault said...

Dear Ejona,
I really like how you thought of people reading it around the time it was written because I personally was thinking of people who would read it now. I agree that this would help other people who were going to colonize because many people of that time were excited, however they did not understand the hardships that were to be involved and therefore were possibly unprepared. This would have been very beneficial for them to read to know that tough sicknesses, loss of stability, and inefficient order could lead them in a bad direction. Very nice post!
Sincerely, Kara

Kara Pasnault said...

Dear Hannah,
I agree that Smith's style of writing was deadpan because you cannot really pick up on his emotion during the passage. In addition to what you said about how he jumps topics often, when he was dying, his emotions were not prominent and it was rather brief for such an important topic. It then jumped ahead to him being well again. Because of this, I also thought his deadpan style was a little confusing at times so I can relate with you on that. Good post!
Sincerely, Kara

Colin Mattutini said...

1. The audience that "The General History of Virginia (1624)" seems intended for those interested in the early settlement of Jamestown, and for those interested in John Smith's encounters with the Indians.

Colin Mattutini said...

4. In the passage, Smith depicts the Indians as not being human, almost like animals or vile creatures. Smith describes the Indians in the passage as "fiends, devils, and savages" making them seem horrible. Also, when Smith was at Orapaks, he described the Indians as "grim" and made them seem strange because of their ritual and the paint on their faces.

Brandon Tomas said...

1.) "The general history of Virginia" intended for an audience that wants to educate themselves on the topics of the settlement of Jamestown and the involvement of John Smith with the Indians.

Brandon Tomas said...

4.) Smith's tone towards the Indians was ruthless as he depicted them as if they weren't human. He frequently referred to them as savages. He also referred to them as devils and fiends. By using these phrases he stresses that there behavior is nothing of what a normal humans would be. He even described there voices as "hellish". So it is clearly obvious that Smith had a strong hatred for the Indians with his consistent harsh labelings of them.

Riley Cronin said...

5.Throughout this piece John Smith often references God. In the beginning he states "But now was all our provision spent, the sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned. Each hour we were expecting the fury of the savages, when God, the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the savages that they brought such plenty of their fruits and provisions that no man wanted." This would have conveyed the message to the readers that God was able to save their lives when they were desperate for food and living in constant fear of the natives. It is also evident to his readers that they believe God is ruling over life, determining their fate, and in this case supporting him. Another instance where God is referenced in his work is later on when he states "But Almighty God by His divine providence had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion." This further shows the reader how Smith's piece continues to portray God's ruling powers over their lives and how he can alter the chain of events to assist Smith. At the end of the piece Smith supports his message to the reader with the statement "Thus you can see what difficulties still crossed any good endeavor, and the good success of the business being thus oft brought to the very period of destruction. Yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it..." Overall it is clear that John Smith's piece had a great effect on the reader through it's mentioning of God, showing that he has control over everyone's fate and in the end he helped John Smith and the other settlers survive.

Riley Cronin said...

1. The General History of Virginia (1624) is intended for a reader that has an interest in early American history, specifically the beginning of Jamestown. It is also intended for a reader that is interested with the early interactions between the Native Americans and the settlers. Overall this article can serve as a guide to anyone that is researching Jamestown.

Mickey Syrotiak said...

1.) John Smith's writings in "The General History of Virginia" seem aimed at people in 17th and 18th century England who had an interest in the New World. It explained his adventures and his (possible) encounters with Pocahontas and other Native Americans. These stories would have intrigued the people in England who knew their nation was colonizing the New World- a place of wonder to them with foreign people and foreign cultures, but were not able to see it in the flesh.

Mickey Syrotiak said...

4.) Smith often created the sense that the Native Americans were insane by describing their rituals. He described them using face paint that made them "ugly." He also referred to some of the Native Americans dressing up very "Scary" and frightening him, making him feel like he never knew if they would kill him. He also makes them out to be curious and naive. They were astonished by the compass, which he described in his writings. He also added that they could be very generous and friendly, as seen by Pocahontas' heroic saving of his life (which may or may not have happened) and the Native Americans helping the people in Jamestown.

Jordon Harris said...

2.) From the source material, it is evident that John Smith's overall tone was deadpan. The various topics covered in "What happened till the first supply" by John Smith all fell under the setting of the grim and dire reality of the colonists and himself doing their best to survive while in a way trespassing on Native land and ultimately being unable to avoid confrontation with the dubbed "savages". One example of Smith's deadpan tone was when he realized the misery that everyone (including himself) where collectively experiencing when he said "With this lodging and diet our extreme toil in bearing and planting palisadoes so strained and bruised and our continual labor in the extremity of the heat had so weakened us as were cause sufficient to have made us as miserable in our native country or any other place in the world." Smith maintained this pessimistic tone when talking about the "savages." After being captured and almost killed by the natives, Smith didn't vary his tone when describing a presumed ritual in which a fire was made in a long house with a mat spread out for a "grim" man with many skins on him to speak invocations in a hellish voice and "environ" a fire with a circle of meal.

Jordon Harris said...

4.) Smith was not reserved in calling the natives "savages" in various places throughout the text. The Indians where depicted as that by him commonly in the passage and generally as lowly
human beings. During the ritual he witnessed, he called the people who were dancing "fiends" and "ugly like the rest." Smith also called some "grim courtiers" and "barbarous" when describing those who stared at him and where intrigued by his sight. He often made remarks about their clothing. Smith went into great detail about the skins worn during a ritual he saw which probably did nothing to ease his notions of a "savagely" people.

Taylor Queen said...

1. The type of audience that "The General History of Virginia (1624)" seems to be intended for is anyone that wants to learn about the early settlements of Jamestown and John Smith's encounter with the Indians. This article is extremely well informed and would provide much information to anyone seeking more knowledge on the origins of the "New World."

Taylor Queen said...

5. Smith mentions God in this piece three times; "Each hour [we were] expecting the fury of the savages, when God, the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the savages that they brought such plenty of their fruits and provisions that no man wanted." , "But Almighty God (by His divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion." and "Yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it...." The effects that these quotes would have on his readers is the importance of the presence of God. Smith only speaks positive about God. To him, God always had the best intentions and was following him every step of the way. I think his readers would really appreciate that his faith in God had changed the ways of the savages and barbarians and how that was able to shape history.

Ashley Hobberlin said...

1. This article seems to be intended for older readers who would like to know about the start of the colony in Virginia and the way the Native Americans treated John Smith, which suggests that it would most likely have been read either by those who wished to follow them or had an interest in history.

Ashley Hobberlin said...

4. Smith depicts the Indians in this passage as primitive people who don't understand the rest of the world and don't have the knowledge to do so. He does so by repeatedly calling them savages and saying that their rituals and way of dressing were primitive and, he implied, ridiculous. He also stated that they were amazed by his compass, but couldn't seem to understand, talking about how they touched the glass but couldn't touch the needle inside of it.

Adam Iacomacci said...

Question 1- The type of audience that this seems to be intended for is somebody with a general idea of the time period, and is familiar and interested with it, specifially interactions and conflicts between groups of people such as the Native Americans and the other settlers.

Adam Iacomacci said...

Question 4- In the text, Smith depicts the Indians as animals or creatures rather than humans. He describes them commonly as "savages" or "devils", making the Indians appear to be bad people. He also described them as strange people when he saw the paint on their faces as part of a ritual that the Indians perform. Lastly, he said that Powhatan "looked more like a devil than a man".

Tanya Sokhatska said...

1. "The General History of Virginia" is intended for an audience that is interested in the early settlement of Jamestown. This can also be intended for an audience that enjoys reading in a first person point of view. John Smith goes into great detail about his encounters, therefore this article is very informative.

Tanya Sokhatska said...

4. Smith depicts the Indians as if they come from a lower class. He refers to them as "savages", "fiends", and "devils". This conveys that Smith didn't think of them as people but more as animals. What supports this is how Smith wrote about their "hellish voice" and how they ate in a "barbarous manner.

Cassie Quintiliano said...

1. "The General History of Virginia" was written for anyone who wanted to learn more about what happened to John Smith from the time he arrived. Also, anyone who wanted to know more about how John Smith interacted with the Native Americans would find "The General History of Virginia" to be a good resource.

Cassie Quintiliano said...

5. In this text, Smith mentions God in the quotes, "...but Almighty God (by His divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion" and "...then God, the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the savages that they brought such plenty of their fruits and provisions that no man wanted."
These quotes may bring the reader to believe that John Smith felt the Native Americans could not feel compassion themselves. The phrasing of the words signal that John Smith believes the good actions of the Native Americans were because of God's intervention rather than the humanity of the Native Americans.

Taylor Queen said...

Cassie- I hadn't thought of the interpretation that the Native Americans' actions were based on God's intervention instead of their humanity. I was only thinking about how God had effected Smith himself and how that, in return, would effect his readers. I really enjoyed your opinion on this question.
-Taylor

Jacob Liedke said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Jacob Liedke said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Jacob Liedke said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Jacob Liedke said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Jacob Liedke said...

4: Throughout this passage, the Indians surrounding Jamestown are not necessarily referred to as "equals" by John Smith. Several times during this reading, the Natives are called "savages", "devils", or "fiends" because of their traditional rituals that were unknown to Smith. John Smith depicts the Indians as a completely different species and as if they are more similar to wild animals than humans.

Jacob Liedke said...

Hello Riley,

Do you think that this passage could have also been read by the general public of London at the time of Smith's voyage, or maybe by any one that was interested in the work of the Virginia Company?

Jacob Liedke said...

1: "The General History of Virginia" by John Smith seems to be intended for the investors of the Virginia Company, potential investors of the company and anyone who was living around that time in history that was generally interested in the English's exploration in the New World. From an educational standpoint, "The General History of Virginia" can also be used as a first-hand account of John Smith, the captain that led the Virginia Company's voyage to the New World.

Jessica Chambal said...

Smith depicts the Indians in this passage as a completely different species. Using words such as "savages", "devils", and "fiends" Smith is able to show the reader his interpretation of how the Native Americans look and behave when encountering a foreigner. What caused Smith to react this way was when he saw their traditions that he had never seen before, such as their body paint. For Smith to depict the Indians in this matter is completely normal when one race believes it is inferior to the other, as history has shown us with the theological and racial discrimination that begun even before the colonization of the Americas.

Jessica Chambal said...

Smith mentions God three times. The first line is, "But now was all our provision spent, the sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned. Each hour [we were] expecting the fury of the savages, when God, the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the savages that they brought such plenty of their fruits and provisions that no man wanted." The second line is, "But Almighty God (by His divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion." The third line is, "Yet you see by what strange means God hath still delivered it.…" These mentions of God indicate how religion was one of the biggest aspects of the English life. His readers would take in mind his faith and realize how he worships his God in the most respected manner, but I also believe it would make the readers question how much good the colonists were actually doing. When put into perspective, it would make the reader wonder why Smith was praying to his God to mollify the Native Americans hearts when clearly they pray to different gods.

Cassie Quintiliano said...

Dear Jess,
While I was reading the text it never occurred to me to look at religion in general and how the Native Americans and Smith had very different ones. Instead I focused on Smith's religion and how he was overlooking a person's choice. Looking back I definitely agree that it is odd to pray to a God of a religion that only one side follows.
-Cassie

Alexander Massie said...

"The General History of Virginia" is intended for anyone in that time period who would be interested in investing in the Virgina Company. Also, this piece of work could be designed for anyone today interested in John Smith and his experiences.

Alexander Massie said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Brandon Tomas said...

Hi Jordan,
Your answer to number 2 was very thorough and supportive to your claim. I would agree that he was very deadpan throughout the excerpt because of his constant negativity. Your explianation of how he remained pessimistic throughout the story really helped strengthen your answer. With that being said I would like to add that he was a bit ironic. His use of vocabulary towards the indians made him look like a bit of a savage. Hence creating a sense of irony. Overall your response was good.
Sincerely,
Brandon

Brandon Tomas said...

Dear Adam,
Your response to number 4 was very straight forward and to the point. I liked how you used the example of Powhatan being described as "devilish". Your examples provided helped your point come across. Your response was very similar to mine so theirs not much that I would add. Nice Job!
-Brandon

Hunter Reilly said...

1. "The General History of Virginia" is intended for anyone who would be interested in John Smith's experiences with the new colony of Jamestown. It could also have been directed towards anyone, during that time period, interested in Jamestown.

Hunter Reilly said...

4. Throughout the passage it explains Smith's feelings towards the Indians he encounters. Smith does not accept the Indians culture either. He explains that they are the "devils, fiends and savages." For example Smith does not accept the Indians face paint nor their uniforms. He often acts like they are not humans either. He states the Indians are "barbarians" after he witnessed them eat. These examples explain how Smith did not accept the Indians and their culture.

Tanya Sokhatska said...

Dear Jess,
The way you approached this question was amazing. You had great quotes that supported your stance and you changed my perspective when you acknowledged the fact that they pray to different gods.

Sincerely, Tanya

dan shibu said...

1. The general history of Virginia seemed to be intended as a record of John's experiences for himself, anyone who needed it, or for any other reason it might have been useful for the colonists as information.
4. John depicts the indians as uncivilized savages, probably with the generalization that they were "bad" people. In the 'general history of Virginia' text (pg. 2) , he refers to the indians as savages, showing that he thought very little of them, and that he thought of them as uncivilized and barbarian-like.

Mickey Syrotiak said...

Dear Kara,

I hadn't thought of including the way John Smith described simple things that the Native Americans did in their day to day lives. You mentioned his description of how they ate, and how he called them "Barbarous", and I thought that was a good example to use to explain how he thought of them.

-Mickey

dan shibu said...

Dear Jessica,
your response to question 5 was well detailed and supportive of the claim that John completely ignored the fact that the native americans had their own religion. It also made me think that he used the events to support his idea of god, and the fact that he used it to make himself seem superior to others.

Alexander Massie said...

4. In the passage, the Indians are not treated equally by John Smith. In the reading, Smith refers to the Native Americans as "fiends", "devils", and "savages". In addition to this, Smith says that the Indians looked barbarous when they ate. Smith sees the Indians to be of a different species, which is not much of a surprise since many Indians during the colonization period were mistreated and were a victim to substantial racism.

Alexander Massie said...

Dear Taylor,
Your response to question 5 was organized well and included a lot of a specific details from the text. In addition, you did an effective job of explaining the specific quotes that you pulled from the text. Overall, you did a great job of answering the question!!

Gina Ferrara said...

1. The kind of audience that "The General History of Virginia" seems intended for is any historian or person that would be interested in John Smith's accounts of Jamestown at that time. It can also be intended for anyone during that time period who was curious about the other colonies, such as Jamestown.

Gina Ferrara said...

4. The way that Smith depicts the Indians in this passage is not very appealing. He makes them sound as if they were a lesser form of man. For example, he uses words such as "barbaric", "devils", "fiends", and "savages" to describe their behavior and actions. He writes that Powhatan was "more like a devil than a man" in the way he acted. He also refers to the Indians multiple times throughout the passage as "savages". For example, he writes "each hour, (we were) expecting the fury of the savages" and "then finding the captain, as is said, that used the savage that was his guide as a shield, all the rest would not come near him". Based on the way he writes, you can tell that Smith does not have much respect for the Indians.

Gina Ferrara said...

Dear Jess,
Your response to question 4 was very well thought out. The way you explained how Smith thought that he was superior to the Indians and how his reaction was normal was a creative way to answer the question. You also organized your answer by including text evidence that supported your thought. Overall, your answer was very well constructed, thought out, and organized.

Hannah Roman said...

Dear Jacob,
I haven't thought about the reading intended for the Investors, or potential investors, of the Virginia Company. I think your idea is very different from the others.
Keep up the good posting,
Hannah

Chris Fraser said...

1. The type of audience that "The General History of Virginia (1624)" seems to be intended for is anyone that wants to learn about the early settlements of Jamestown and John Smith's encounter with the Native Americans. This article is pretty well informed and would provide a lot information to anyone who wanted more knowledge on the beginnings of the "New World."

Chris Fraser said...

1. The type of audience that "The General History of Virginia (1624)" seems to be intended for is anyone that wants to learn about the early settlements of Jamestown and John Smith's encounter with the Native Americans. This article is pretty well informed and would provide a lot information to anyone who wanted more knowledge on the beginnings of the "New World."

Chris Fraser said...

4. In this passage John Smith depicts the Indians on a much lower level than him and his fellow colonists. Throughout the passage, he often talks about them as if they were beasts, which is a demonizing term meaning uncivilized and uncontrolled. Later in the passage, he calls them "fiends and "devils" while they performed a ritual, sacred to their culture. Lastly as they were eating Smith tells how they ate in a barbaric form, meaning uncivilized yet again. Therefore, John Smith clearly depicts the Indians as primitive and barbaric people.

Alexis Perry said...

1. "The General History of Virginia" seems to be intended for those who in interested in John Smith's experiences and for those who want to learn more about Jamestown.

Alexis Perry said...

6. It seems that Smith depicted himself out to be more important than he really was and that he was a hero when he really wasn't.

Riley Cronin said...

Dear Jacob,
You make a very good point. I agree with your statement that this could have been used to show the work of the Virginia Company and their successes. This passage does show the rest of the public that was not in North America at the time what it was really like and the problems they faced. You make a very good point that did not notice before.

Riley Cronin said...

Dear Cassie,
I agree with your statement for question 5 that Smith believed that all of the Native American's actions were driven by god. It is clearly present throughout the passage the he believes that God allowed him to survive, not the Native Americans. Overall I believe your response was spot on and accurately describes Smith's thoughts involving religion.

Jessica Chambal said...

Dear Gina,
I completely agree with your analysis of how Smith depicted the Native Americans. What I really enjoyed was how you included the complete phrases from the text in your response. It makes your claim very convincing. Good job!
Sincerely, Jess

Jessica Chambal said...

Dear Chris,
I enjoyed your response to question 1. I hadn't thought of it as a resource for people to learn from but as a persuasive letter to the people of that time to voyage over to the New World. Thank you for posing a different view to the letter.
Keep up the good posting,
Jess

Jacob Hunnicutt said...

4. Smith shows to depict the Native Americans less than a primitive response as you might expect, but rather more in a a barbaric way as he stated "Each hour [we were] expecting the fury of the savages". His perspective of them contrasted with others depictions of the Indians. Columbus described them as generous and willful to expose and give to the travelers, as compared to the descriptions assessed Smith who associates a viciousness to them. In this way he give the us a different view of the Indians as compared to our already comprised view. His view that the 'savages' were instruments of the Devil. Words such as "Devil", "barbaric", Savages", and "fiends" serve to illustrate to us his interpretation of these natives.

Gina Ferrara said...

Dear Jacob,
Your response to question 4 was enjoyable to read. I liked how you included the way Columbus described the Indians and based on that, the way we might see them, and how that might change based on Smith's view. Overall, you did a very good job answering that question.
-Gina

Jacob Hunnicutt said...

1. The General History of Virginia (1624) seems to be intended to those who are not necessarily interested in learning about British colonization in the Americas, it is almost intended to romanticize the triumphant colonists in their battle to survive in expand in the name of their god. Smith shows to interpret this almost like an adventurous novel as he show valiance. So on these accounts we can deduce that a History of Virginia may not be the specific and sole interpretation of learning about that history. Instead this text can indicate that it may be used to coerce some into joining the men and women across the Atlantic. A patriotic Spirit may be intended for the reader. To expose them to an environment where they can expand Gods Kingdom, defeat the devils puppets. Its an aged piece of Propaganda from this perspective. The audience intended for this text is someone wanting to make the journey across the Atlantic, they are meant to read it so that they may populate the Eastern Coast of America and fulfill the adventurers and journeys of Smith.

Jacob Hunnicutt said...

1. The General History of Virginia (1624) seems to be intended to those who are not necessarily interested in learning about British colonization in the Americas, it is almost intended to romanticize the triumphant colonists in their battle to survive in expand in the name of their god. Smith shows to interpret this almost like an adventurous novel as he show valiance. So on these accounts we can deduce that a History of Virginia may not be the specific and sole interpretation of learning about that history. Instead this text can indicate that it may be used to coerce some into joining the men and women across the Atlantic. A patriotic Spirit may be intended for the reader. To expose them to an environment where they can expand Gods Kingdom, defeat the devils puppets. Its an aged piece of Propaganda from this perspective. The audience intended for this text is someone wanting to make the journey across the Atlantic, they are meant to read it so that they may populate the Eastern Coast of America and fulfill the adventurers and journeys of Smith.

Gosia Fryc said...

1. "The General History of Virginia" is intended to provide valuable and expeditious information about John Smiths actions towards Jamestown, and Jamestown's beginning. This article is subject and ideal to those who are new to the information about the New World. Additionally, this article is intended for a curious, and inquisitive audience about the past.

4. My interpretations involves John Smith depicting the Indians very careless and very poorly. Smith treats the Indians as if they weren't human at all, but more like animals. One example of this is when Smith called Powhatan "more like a devil than a man" when Smith was brought forth to a great house in the woods. Also, as Smith heard the Indians chant, he described their voices as "hellish". These two examples prove that John Smith was not fond of the Indians, and was not accepting to the Indians at all.

Gosia Fryc said...

Dear Jacob H.,
I really enjoyed reading your responses. I like how you used a lot of text evidence in question 4 and a lot of explanations in the first question. It was very agreeable and engaging to read.

Colin Mattutini said...

Dear Jacob L.,

I found your response to question 1 to be very unique due to the fact that you took the question both from an educational point of view and a historical point of view, by saying that the article could have been for potential investors of the Virginia Company. I hadn't thought of interpreting the question in that way.

Colin Mattutini said...

Dear Hannah R.,

I agree with your statement that Smith's style of narration is very much deadpan. As Smith was faced with potential death from people he referred to as "demons and fiends", you would think he would have some emotional feeling (such as fear) as to what was happening, yet he doesn't seem to have any emotion at all.

Mackenzie Seccombe said...

1. "The General History Of Virginia" seems intended for any historian or individual who is interested in John Smith's experiences with Jamestown and those who would like to learn more about the start of Jamestown. This article is also intended for anyone interested in learning about the "new world" and the early encounters with the Native American tribes.

Mackenzie Seccombe said...

4. Smith depicts the Indians as uncivilized and not equal. In the text Smith treats the Indians with disrespect and almost hatred. He calls them "savages", "fiends" and "devils". Also Smith called the Indians eating habits "barbarous" which shows that he was not accepting of their lifestyle.

Mackenzie Seccombe said...

Dear Alex,
I liked your response to question 4. It made me realize just how mistreated the Indians were when you stated that they were treated like another species. I also liked how you said that it was common for them to be mistreated because that shows that Smith was not very different to feel this way.

Mackenzie Seccombe said...

Dear Jess,
I liked your response to question 4 too! You made me look at life back then in a different way. I liked how you said that different races thought they were superior to one another. It also made me realize how long racism and mistreatment went on for. Good job :)

Edward Han said...

1. Although "The General History of Virginia" was a retelling of the events that occurred and certainly did a proper job of showing the history, I'd rather disagree that the text is supposed to be for people who are merely looking for information about the history of Virginia. Take "The Hot Zone" as an example, although it is also fiction, the book is also classified as a nonfiction. Due to the classification, does that mean that the author intended for people will read it for a study on bio hazardous weapons or rather read it for more an enjoyable telling with hard facts behind it. I think that this approach is more appropriate for something to this kind of text of Virginia as the text goes on to touch onto the very minuscule details of the journey like how there were more worms than corn in the rations that it was more like Bran than corn. In this format, I think the text is intended for people who would enjoy an extravagant story with a real background.

Edward Han said...

6. Smith, or rather his life in these events, is depicted as this adventuring protagonist. Although the events of the text could possibly happen, the series of the events that befell onto Smith feels quite exaggerated and quite larger than life. For example, Smith was captured by the Natives, shown to all the Natives in their villages and had met their chief. After an exchange of gifts and other events, Smith had been discharged from their capture.

(whoops part 2 of my post I guess; Pags if you see this, I posted my answer to the first question early so heres the second question)

Edward Han said...

Dear Colin M,

In your first answer to question 1, I thought it was good of you to acknowledge the face of the text and what the background meant to the readers, but I think it also blindsides the main focus of all the details included

Riley Cronin said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Riley Cronin said...

Dear Edward,
You bring up an interesting point that no one has touched upon before. I think what makes it out to be interpreted as an informative piece for historians is the style of writing used by Smith. To some it is very easy to interpret it as a formal style of writing used to document his story. But you do make a very good point in your response that I never thought about before.

Klea Hasaj said...

4. Smith depicts the Indians in the passage by calling them “savages” and “barbarians”. He believes that they are savages because of how cruel they are treating him and because they aren’t handling anything like white civilized men do. He thinks they are beneath him, degrading the Indians without giving them a chance first therefore naming them barbarians.

Klea Hasaj said...

6. John Smith writes himself in the third person, using “they”, “him”, and “it”. For example, “When the Indian party began to surround Smith, he defended “...himself with the aid of a savage, his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters and used him as a buckler.”

Klea Hasaj said...

Dear Hannah,
I agree with your response on why you think his tone was deadpan. I had the same issues as you while reading, trying to find any emotion in his tone to make it more easy to understand what his thoughts were on everything happening around him. I feel like this is the reason why there is suspicion on his relationship with Pocahontas being real, his lack of information and sense of who he was as a person made it very questionable.

17gkhan said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Gohar Khan said...

1. Although some may deem "The General History of Virginia" an esoteric piece of writing, when taken into consideration relative to its author and the "facts" presented, it becomes manifest that the passage is intended for all individuals that have an interest in history. The passage was prefaced by the statement, "Smith was an aggressive self-promoter." Hence, if Smith was an individual that enjoyed imparting his prowess to masses of people, then this passage was intended to do so. For instance, historians have questioned whether or not Pocahontas actually rescued John Smith. Contemporary historians even point out that John Smith told multiple stories in which he was "saved" by beautiful women. Therefore, if these facts are ostensible, it becomes clear that John Smith wrote this passage with the intent for it to convey his seeming gallantry. Thus, "The General History of Virginia" seems intended for all people that have an interest in history, and not only historians that have a specific interest in colonial America.

Gohar Khan said...

4. Smith depicts the Indians in this passage in a manner that condemns their validity as human-beings. Smith describes the Indians in a way akin to the way an individual would describe an animal. For instance, Smith states the following regarding the Indians: "God has mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians," "[Powhatan acted] more like a devil than a man," "three more such devils came rushing in," "used the savage that was his guide." By using these phrases, Smith trivializes the importance of the Indians and clearly conveys his notion that the Indians were not "true" humans.

Jenny Forsyth said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Jenny Forsyth said...

1. The audience of "The General History of Virginia (1624)" seems to be intended for a broad range of people. For example, people who want to learn about what Jamestown was like. Also, to learn about John Smith and what it was like for him when he came to America. It could be people who are very interested in history or high school students like us who need to learn about the history for a class. The audience might also be intended for teachers who are looking to learn more about what they are teaching.

Jenny Forsyth said...

4. Smith depicts the Indians in this passage in a negative way. He doesn't really accept the Indians for who they are including their culture. He doesn't like how they wear body paint for rituals. John Smith describes the Indians as "devils" and he calls them "savages". He didn't treat them equally compared to all the Europeans who came to the New World. He treats them like they are animals, not humans.



Jenny Forsyth said...

Dear Gina,
I like how you answered the question to number 4 by describing the way John Smith thought of the Indians as "A lesser form of a man." I thought that was a great way of describing his input about the Indians. You also had a lot of text evidence in your answer to back up your statement. Keep up the good work!!
Sincerly,
Jenny

Shari Minalga said...

The audience of "The General History of Virginia" was intended for those who are looking for an entertaining historical passage. The reason I say this is because many Historians still wonder if Pocahontas really did save John Smith. Therefore this story is based on both fact and opinion, hence it should intended for a reading of enjoyment rather than an informative, factual reading.

Jenny Forsyth said...

Dear Jess,
I like how you answered your question to number 5. I thought you brought up a good point in your answer about how John Smith and the Indians have different gods so you didn't understand why Smith was praying to his God to mollify the Native Americans. Also, I thought that you explained your explanation thoroughly. Keep up the good work!
Sincerely,
Jenny

Shari Minalga said...

Throughout "The General History of Virginia", Smith depicts the Indians in a way where they are dehumanized. He consistently talks down at them as if they are not living, breathing beings, for they are some sort of creatures. For example, Smith states, "..three more such like devils came rushing in..", "then Powhatan, more like a devil than a man..". He also describes how they are "barbaric" when they eat. These examples from the text show that Smith depicts the Indians as a different species, especially when he compares them to the devil(s).

Shari Minalga said...

Dear Gohar,
I really liked your use of vocabulary when answering question one. You reworded the question in a very advanced, mature tone. I also thought that your ideas of who this passage was intended for was excellent. You took a different approach in comparison to the majority of our classmates. You explained your ideas precisely and got straight to the point, and supported your claim. Nice job.
Sincerely,
Shari Minalga

Noah Galietta said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Brooke Seymour said...

Dear Gosia,
hello. I strongly agree with you response to question 4. I believe your points are valid and you used good text evidence. You related the Indians to animals which I too noticed in the article. You also supported each of your ideas. Well done.

Noah Galietta said...

6. John Smith in "The General History of Virginia" constantly made himself seem above everyone else in these situations such as when he was attacked by 300 bowmen and was able to defend himself. He used the native American as a shield showing how he depicted himself highly above the ordinary man and especially over native Americans due to his hatred of them. He use of the word exhibited in the statement "Smith was exhibited in various Indian villages" again shows how he depicted himself as above the ordinary man and described himself as something to be shown. His capture as well which is something Smith isn't proud of was made to seem like he was overwhelmed by hundreds of men to make it seem like it was a near impossible task.

Noah Galietta said...

4. In the passage John Smith described the native Americans as monsters using the term savages about five times to describe the native Americans and constantly avoid calling them people or anything besides savages. He insulted their rituals saying they had a "hellish voice" and called those with paint standard for their rituals devils. In his own words he saw them as "fiends...and then came in three more as ugly as the rest, with red eyes and white stokes over their faces" demonstrating how he depicted them as various different types of beasts or monsters using different wording to describe them each time. Instead of using this as a metaphor John Smith attempted to describe them as literal monsters instead of people.

Amber Kay said...

6. In Smiths writing he depicts himself as if he is a courageous hero. He says " everything of worth is found in difficulties". He describes his journey as if he wants the reader to take strong consideration into his struggles. He uses phrases such as " being thus left to our fortunes" and "ten days scarce ten among us" to show this. However, he only speaks about himself and not the other 100 men that were a part of Smiths crew. This shows Smith thinks of himself as the ring leader of the first supply. He includes many opinions rather than facts which mostly tells the reader he actually believed his opinions were the facts.

Eryk Skowronski said...

Dear Noah,
I agree with all the points that you made in question 4. I like how you used direct evidence straight from the text to support your response. You also explained each term after listing it. Your response was very well written.

Noah Galietta said...

Dear Collin,
I strongly agree with all the points you included in #4 about how Smith described the native Americans. I like how you used every different label that was used by Smith to describe the native Americans and it answered the question in a simple format.

Amber Kay said...

1. The audience "The General History of Virginia" seems to be intended for anyone who is not only interested in the early settlement of Jamestown, but also for anyone who is interested in Captain John Smiths character. This reading portrays his qualities and personality extremely well and gives a clear representation of what Smith was like.

Gosia Fryc said...

Dear Brooke Seymour,
yo, Thank you for your comment! I also enjoyed your answer to questions 4 and 1. It was very agreeable when you noted the Indians as inhumane and animalistic, which I thought were strong words Christopher Columbus would of used to describe the Indians. Very well dont with your comment. I am proud.

Gohar Khan said...

Dear Noah,

You answer to number 4 was very well thought out. You used various text examples that gave me a better view of why you answered the question the way you did. I also like how you stated that Smith did not use his phrases metaphorically; Smith sincerely thought of the Native Americans as being animal-like and spoke of them in a demeaning manner. I also like how you were specific enough to state that Smith called the Native Americans "savages" approximately five times.

Best regards,
Gohar

Gohar Khan said...

Dear Shari,

Thank you for your response. I am glad that you enjoyed my answer. I also agree with what you said in your answer to number 4. I also believe that Smith dehumanized the Native Americans and that he believed the Native Americans were creature-like. Your response was well supported with text evidence, and your last sentence wrapped up your answer nicely.

Sincerely,
Gohar

Scott Brossman said...

4. John Smith depicts the Indians in this passage by describing the Indians as "savages", he had a close encounter with the them when they captured him. He also stated that they slayed his men right in front of him, and he called them devils when they were at the fire. He basically depicts the Indians as a terrible group of people, who tortured his people and were very violent.

Scott Brossman said...

6. John Smith depicted himself in his writing as a hero or a leader, due to all the hardships he faced and overcame. For example, he was captured by the Indians and "When the Indian party began to surround Smith, he defended “...himself with the aid of a savage, his guide, whom he bound to his arm with his garters and used him as a buckler.”], which shows he tried to overcome that hardship. Also, after that ordeal John Smith began to build the relationship between them and the Indians, and Pocahontas would bring them provisions which saved many lives, so this showed him as a leader.

Scott Brossman said...

Dear Riley,
I agree with your answer to question 1, John Smiths writing was definitely intended for a reader interested in Early American History. I also believe that it could be intended for people who have a Native American background, especially if their ancestors are from the same tribe that were in contact with the people from Jamestown.

Amber Kay said...

Dear Shari,
I thought the way you stated that "Smith depicts the Indians in a way where they are dehumanized" was very smart. It was a perfect word to describe Indians.
Sincerely, Amber

Ejona said...

Dear Hanna,
Thank you for the comment. I do agree that this passage has the capability of teaching people from the past, the present, and future, of Jamestown. What they endured, overcame, and how the impacted society today.
Sincerely,
Ejona

Ejona Gjata said...

Dear Gohar,
Your response was well thought of and very detailed. I couldn't agree more that Smith was an "aggressive self-promoter," and this piece of writing could have been intended for entertainment of history. My question for you, however, is if Smith was trying to get the people of Jamestown out of hardship and caution future colonists for what they will be up against, would not the purpose of this writing be more beneficial towards knowledge people needed to colonize in the New World, or simply for historical entertainment?
Sincerely,
Ejona

Anya Garasimowicz said...

4: In the passage, John Smith depicts the Indians as being devils. He says, “three or more such like devils came rushing in with the like antique tricks”. This statement shows me that John Smith felt that the Indians were evil and he hated them. He also refers to the Indians as savages showing that he thought they were uncivilized.

Anya Garasimowicz said...

1: The type of audience that The General History of Virginia (1624) seems for is anybody who is interested in learning more about the history of John Smith. It could be for anybody who wants to maybe try and figure out if John Smith was faking the Pocahontas story. Lastly, it could be for anybody who wants to learn about the interaction between John Smith and the Native Americans.

Anya Garasimowicz said...

Dear Jacob Hunnicutt, I enjoyed reading your response to number 1 because although we did the same question, we had a different look. I never thought of the fact that the colonist are seemed to be romanticized and it got me to think that John Smith could've exaggerated or even made up a lot of other things in the texts.

Anya Garasimowicz said...

Dear Alexis Perry, I liked your response to number 6 because I agreed. John Smith definitely exaggerated to make it seem as though he was more important and tough than he actually is. It made me wonder whether or not a lot of what he said was true and how he could've messed up the accuracy of history.

Jacob Hunnicutt said...

Dear Anya,
I agree with your proposal that John Smith imposed a Religious bias upon the Native Americans that they were Demons. It seems through the entire piece he evokes this proposal of Christian superiority. Something in which I fell you have been able to manifest in your response.

Jacob Hunnicutt said...

Dear Ejona,
I sympathize with your assessment on John Smith demonizing the Native American inhabitance. It seems that within the confines of the entire text an atmosphere of inferiority is spoken of in reference to the Native American Tribes established within the regions. And in your respons I feel you had proposed such as description.

Shari Minalga said...

Dear Amber,
Thank you for your feedback, I felt the word "dehumanized" was appropriate in the way that Smith had described the Natives. He treated them poorly and frowned upon their rituals.
Sincerely,
Shari

Ashley Hobberlin said...

Dear Tanya,
I agree with your statement about who would read this article, but John Smith often promoted himself in ways that were less than factual, so while his first person stories will provide information about how he wanted people to see him and his personality, they may not be entirely accurate, so they couldn't be considered entirely informative.

Hunter Cripps said...

4.Smith depicts the Indians in a rather negative way. He first off doesn't accept them for who they are as people or who they are from a cultural aspect. He uses cruel and derogatory language to describe who they are as people. Finally, he is shown to be very disapproving of their native garb and makeup/body paint.

Hunter Cripps said...

6. Smith tends to be depicted as a "hero" type figure. An example is when he was being attacked by 300 bowmen, he puts himself behind the native Americans, showing that in a sense he is of a "higher quality" person. Also, when visiting native American villages, he is referred to as being "exhibited" as if he is a more powerful person.

Hunter Cripps said...

Dear Noah,

I strongly agree with your statement in reference to question number 6. I like that you included that he is described as a more significant, hero-like person in when the text refers to him.